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Articles by K. Apun
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. Apun
  K. Apun , Y.L. Chong , M.T. Abdullah and V. Micky
  A total of 133 E. coli strains isolated from different food animals and wildlife sources in Sarawak, Malaysia were screened to determine their antibiotic-resistance pattern using the disk diffusion methods. The animal sources were broiler and village chickens, cattle, bats and rodents. All E. coli isolates were tested for their resistance patterns towards 12 commonly used antibiotics: ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, nalidixic acid, neomycin, nitrofurantoin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline. In general, the most frequently encountered form of resistance in all samples was resistance to tetracycline (41.35%) and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (19.55%). Low levels of resistance were for gentamicin, nitrofurantoin and ofloxacin, which demonstrated less than 7% resistance of the total samples being assessed. The Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) indices were highest for broiler chicken isolates (0.479) and low for bat isolates (0.013). All isolates from both broiler chicken samples were multidrug-resistant E. coli. A high percentage of the isolates from bat (84.62%) and rodent (68.57%) samples were not resistant (totally susceptible) to all the antibiotics tested. The results in this study thus suggest that wildlife do not present a high risk of spreading antibiotic-resistant E. coli to the environment. The higher value of MAR indices as well as prevalence of multiple-resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from food animals demonstrated that indiscriminate use of antibiotics should be discouraged in food animals to overcome future resistance problem.
  K. Apun , K.L. Kho , Y.L. Chong , F.H. Hashimatul , M.T. Abdullah , M.A. Rahman , M.B. Lesley and L. Samuel
  This study was carried out to assess the occurrence of Escherichia coli and to detect the pathogenic strain Escherichia coli O157:H7 in birds, bats and rodents from disturbed habitats comprising of two urban forests and an oil palm plantation habitats located along the Rejang Basin, Sibu in the state of Sarawak, using both standard microbiological and molecular techniques. A total of 105 bird hosts, 44 of rodent hosts and 84 bat hosts represented 48 species of birds, one species of rodent and ten species of bats were screened for the presence of Escherichia coli. The representative isolates were cultured on a highly selective agar, Cefaxime-tellurite sorbitol MacConkey agar for the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7. From the microbiological analysis, the overall occurrences of Escherichia coli in the hosts were 43% in rodents, 18% in birds and 11% in bats. The isolates were tested for the presence of pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain by multiplex PCR method targeting the slt-I, slt-II, rfbE and fliCH7 genes. The slt-I, slt-II, rfbE genes were not detected in any of the E. coli isolates. This study indicated that bats, birds, or rodents from these habitats in Sarawak did not serve as an important reservoir of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and thus were of no risk in the epidemiologic cycle of emerging enteric bacterial zoonoses in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia.
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