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Articles by K. T Khaw
Total Records ( 8 ) for K. T Khaw
  H Ward , P. N Mitrou , R Bowman , R Luben , N. J Wareham , K. T Khaw and S. Bingham

Background  The risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) may be related to genetic mutations in the production of apolipoprotein E via alterations to the metabolism of CHD-related blood lipids such as low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides.

Methods  The relationship between APOE genotype (*E3/*E3, *E3/*E4, *E2/*E3, *E4/*E4, *E2/*E4, and *E2/*E2) and fatal and nonfatal CHD was examined among 10 035 men and 12 134 women, aged 440 to 79 years, from the Norfolk, England, arm of the European Prospective Into Nutrition and Cancer Study (1993-2007). During an average of 11 years of follow-up, 2712 CHD events were documented.

Results  The hazard ratio for CHD was 0.88 (95% confidence interval, 0.77-0.99) for *E2 carriers (*E2/*E2 and *E2/*E3) and 1.09 (1.00-1.19) for *E4 carriers (*E3/*E4 and *E4/*E4) compared with homozygous *E3/*E3 individuals after age and sex adjustment. Similar values were obtained when systolic blood pressure, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, alcohol intake, physical activity, and smoking were added to the model. After additional adjustment for baseline levels of the ratio of low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) for *E2 and *E4 carriers were 0.97 (0.85-1.10) and 1.06 (0.97-1.15), respectively, when compared with *E3 homozygotes. No interactions by sex, smoking status, or age groups were observed.

Conclusion  In the largest prospective cohort study to date, CHD risk was not associated with APOE genotype after controlling for a variety of cardiovascular risk factors, particularly the ratio of low- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  A. G Semb , T Ueland , P Aukrust , N. J Wareham , R Luben , L Gullestad , J. J.P Kastelein , K. T Khaw and S. M. Boekholdt

Objective— The purpose of this study was to examine the association between serum levels of osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and future coronary artery disease (CAD) in apparently healthy individuals. The identification of OPG as a novel cardiovascular risk marker suggests an association between mediators of bone homeostasis and cardiovascular disease.

Methods and Results— Serum levels of OPG and RANKL were analyzed in a prospective case–control study nested in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Norfolk) study, a cohort study of 25 663 men and women, where 951 apparently healthy individuals who developed a coronary event during 6 years’ follow-up were matched by sex and age with 1705 healthy controls. Baseline OPG, but not RANKL, was higher in cases than in controls, and OPG was higher in women than in men. Both men and women in the highest OPG quartile had a higher risk for future CAD. These associations were independent of established cardiovascular risk factors, and when using OPG as a continuous variable, also after adjustment for CRP. In contrast, RANKL showed no association with coronary events.

Conclusion— OPG is associated with the risk of future CAD in apparently healthy men and women, independent of established cardiovascular risk factors.

  L Dossus , R Kaaks , F Canzian , D Albanes , S. I Berndt , H Boeing , J Buring , S. J Chanock , F Clavel Chapelon , H. S Feigelson , J. M Gaziano , E Giovannucci , C Gonzalez , C. A Haiman , G Hallmans , S. E Hankinson , R. B Hayes , B. E Henderson , R. N Hoover , D. J Hunter , K. T Khaw , L. N Kolonel , P Kraft , J Ma , L Le Marchand , E Lund , P. H.M Peeters , M Stampfer , D. O Stram , G Thomas , M. J Thun , A Tjonneland , D Trichopoulos , R Tumino , E Riboli , J Virtamo , S. J Weinstein , M Yeager , R. G Ziegler and D. G. Cox

Genes involved in the inflammation pathway have been associated with cancer risk. Genetic variants in the interleukin-6 (IL6) and prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase-2 (PTGS2, encoding for the COX-2 enzyme) genes, in particular, have been related to several cancer types, including breast and prostate cancers. We conducted a study within the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium to examine the association between IL6 and PTGS2 polymorphisms and breast and prostate cancer risk. Twenty-seven polymorphisms, selected by pairwise tagging, were genotyped on 6292 breast cancer cases and 8135 matched controls and 8008 prostate cancer cases and 8604 matched controls. The large sample sizes and comprehensive single nucleotide polymorphism tagging in this study gave us excellent power to detect modest effects for common variants. After adjustment for multiple testing, none of the associations examined remained statistically significant at P = 0.01. In analyses not adjusted for multiple testing, one IL6 polymorphism (rs6949149) was marginally associated with breast cancer risk (TT versus GG, odds ratios (OR): 1.32; 99% confidence intervals (CI): 1.00–1.74, Ptrend = 0.003) and two were marginally associated with prostate cancer risk (rs6969502-AA versus rs6969502-GG, OR: 0.87, 99% CI: 0.75–1.02; Ptrend = 0.002 and rs7805828-AA versus rs7805828-GG, OR: 1.11, 99% CI: 0.99–1.26; Ptrend = 0.007). An increase in breast cancer risk was observed for the PTGS2 polymorphism rs7550380 (TT versus GG, OR: 1.38, 99% CI: 1.04–1.83). No association was observed between PTGS2 polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk. In conclusion, common genetic variation in these two genes might play at best a limited role in breast and prostate cancers.

  B Hoeft , J Linseisen , L Beckmann , K Muller Decker , F Canzian , A Husing , R Kaaks , U Vogel , M. U Jakobsen , K Overvad , R. D Hansen , S Knuppel , H Boeing , A Trichopoulou , Y Koumantaki , D Trichopoulos , F Berrino , D Palli , S Panico , R Tumino , H.B Bueno de Mesquita , F. J.B van Duijnhoven , C. H van Gils , P. H Peeters , V Dumeaux , E Lund , J. M Huerta Castano , X Munoz , L Rodriguez , A Barricarte , J Manjer , K Jirstrom , B Van Guelpen , G Hallmans , E. A Spencer , F. L Crowe , K. T Khaw , N Wareham , S Morois , M. C Boutron Ruault , F Clavel Chapelon , V Chajes , M Jenab , P Boffetta , P Vineis , T Mouw , T Norat , E Riboli and A. Nieters

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred and ninety two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected using pairwise tagging with an r2 cutoff of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency of >5%. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Haplotype analysis was performed using a generalized linear model framework. On the genotype level, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 were associated with higher risk for CRC, whereas prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) was associated with lower CRC risk. A significant inverse association (P < 0.006) was found for PTGER2 GGG haplotype, whereas HPGD AGGAG and PLA2G3 CT haplotypes were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) associated with higher risk of CRC. Based on these data, we present for the first time the association of HPGD variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk.

  R Sofat , A. D Hingorani , L Smeeth , S. E Humphries , P. J Talmud , J Cooper , T Shah , M. S Sandhu , S. L Ricketts , S. M Boekholdt , N Wareham , K. T Khaw , M Kumari , M Kivimaki , M Marmot , F. W Asselbergs , P van der Harst , R. P.F Dullaart , G Navis , D. J van Veldhuisen , W. H Van Gilst , J. F Thompson , P McCaskie , L. J Palmer , M Arca , F Quagliarini , C Gaudio , F Cambien , V Nicaud , O Poirer , V Gudnason , A Isaacs , J. C.M Witteman , C. M van Duijn , M Pencina , R. S Vasan , R. B D'Agostino , J Ordovas , T. Y Li , S Kakko , H Kauma , M. J Savolainen , Y. A Kesaniemi , A Sandhofer , B Paulweber , J. V Sorli , A Goto , S Yokoyama , K Okumura , B. D Horne , C Packard , D Freeman , I Ford , N Sattar , V McCormack , D. A Lawlor , S Ebrahim , G. D Smith , J. J.P Kastelein , J Deanfield and J. P. Casas

Background— Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) inhibitors raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, but torcetrapib, the first-in-class inhibitor tested in a large outcome trial, caused an unexpected blood pressure elevation and increased cardiovascular events. Whether the hypertensive effect resulted from CETP inhibition or an off-target action of torcetrapib has been debated. We hypothesized that common single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the CETP gene could help distinguish mechanism-based from off-target actions of CETP inhibitors to inform on the validity of CETP as a therapeutic target.

Methods and Results— We compared the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on lipid fractions, blood pressure, and electrolytes in up to 67 687 individuals from genetic studies and 17 911 from randomized trials. CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment reduced CETP activity and had a directionally concordant effect on 8 lipid and lipoprotein traits (total, low-density lipoprotein, and HDL cholesterol; HDL2; HDL3; apolipoproteins A-I and B; and triglycerides), with the genetic effect on HDL cholesterol (0.13 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11 to 0.14 mmol/L) being consistent with that expected of a 10-mg dose of torcetrapib (0.13 mmol/L, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.15). In trials, 60 mg of torcetrapib elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure by 4.47 mm Hg (95% CI 4.10 to 4.84 mm Hg) and 2.08 mm Hg (95% CI 1.84 to 2.31 mm Hg), respectively. However, the effect of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms on systolic blood pressure (0.16 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.28 to 0.60 mm Hg) and diastolic blood pressure (–0.04 mm Hg, 95% CI –0.36 to 0.28 mm Hg) was null and significantly different from that expected of 10 mg of torcetrapib.

Conclusions— Discordance in the effects of CETP single-nucleotide polymorphisms and torcetrapib treatment on blood pressure despite the concordant effects on lipids indicates the hypertensive action of torcetrapib is unlikely to be due to CETP inhibition or shared by chemically dissimilar CETP inhibitors. Genetic studies could find a place in drug-development programs as a new source of randomized evidence for drug-target validation in humans.

  B. J Arsenault , I Lemieux , J. P Despres , N. J Wareham , E. S. G Stroes , J. J. P Kastelein , K. T Khaw and S. M. Boekholdt

Background: Gradient gel electrophoresis (GGE) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are both widely accepted methods for measuring LDL and HDL particle size. However, whether or not GGE- or NMR-measured LDL or HDL particle size predicts coronary heart disease (CHD) risk to a similar extent is currently unknown.

Methods: We used GGE and NMR to measure LDL and HDL particle size in a nested case-control study of 1025 incident cases of CHD and 1915 controls from the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition)-Norfolk study. The study sample included apparently healthy men and women age 45–79 years followed for an average of 6 years.

Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed that the overall agreement between NMR and GGE was better for the measurement of HDL size (r = 0.78) than for LDL size (r = 0.47). The odds ratio for future CHD among participants in the bottom tertile of LDL size (smallest LDL particles) was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.12–1.63) for GGE and 1.74 (1.41–2.15) for NMR. For HDL size, these respective odds ratios were 1.41 (1.16–1.72) and 1.85 (1.47–2.32). After adjustment for potential confounders, the relationship between small LDL or HDL particles and CHD was no longer significant, irrespective of the method.

Conclusions: In this prospective population study, we found that the relationships between NMR-measured LDL and HDL sizes and CHD risk were slightly higher than those obtained with GGE.

  J. Y Park , P. N Mitrou , J Keen , C. C Dahm , L. J Gay , R. N Luben , A McTaggart , K. T Khaw , R. Y Ball , M. J Arends and S. A. Rodwell

The tumour suppressor p53 is one of the most commonly altered genes in colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Genetic alterations in p53 may therefore be associated with postulated lifestyle risk factors for CRC, such as red meat consumption. In the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk study, we examined whether detailed estimates of dietary and lifestyle factors measured at baseline related to later development of p53 mutations in CRCs. After 10-year follow-up, there were 185 incident CRCs of which 34% had somatic p53 mutations (p53+). We observed significantly higher mean intakes of alcohol, total meat and red meat, in the group with p53 mutations and advanced Dukes’ stage disease (daily alcohol intake was 7 and 12 g for p53– and p53+ cases, respectively, P = 0.04; daily total meat intake was 69 and 100 g for p53– and p53+ cases, respectively, P = 0.03 and daily red meat intake was 39 and 75 g for p53– and p53+ cases, respectively, P = 0.01). Each 50 g/day increment in total meat intake was associated with having p53 mutations in cases with advanced Dukes’ stages [odds ratio (OR): 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47–7.96]. Similarly, each 50 g/day increment in red meat intake was also significantly associated with having consistent p53 mutations in cases with advanced Dukes’ stages (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.18–4.96). These effects of total meat or red meat intake and advanced Dukes’ stages were independent of age, sex, body mass index, smoking and alcohol intake. Furthermore, P values for interaction between daily total meat or red meat intake and Dukes’ stages were statistically significant in multivariable models (Pinteraction < 0.001). Our results suggest that p53 mutations accelerate progression of CRC to advanced Dukes’ stage in association with higher meat especially red meat intakes.

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