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Articles by K. M Fox
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. M Fox
  S. J Lewis , K. M Fox , M. F Bullano , S Grandy and for the SHIELD Study Group

Background— Respondents in the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD) reported whether they had a diagnosis of dyslipidemia, were taking prescription dyslipidemia medication, and knew their heart disease risk (low, moderate, high, or do not know). We assessed whether respondents who reported a diagnosis of dyslipidemia with or without lipid-modifying treatment knew their heart disease risk and whether it correlated with National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III risk.

Methods and Results— Based on self-report of risk factors, ATP III high risk was defined as diagnosis of heart disease/heart attack, narrow/blocked arteries, stroke, or diabetes; moderate risk included ≥2 risk factors (ie, men aged >45 years, women aged >55 years, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, current smoking, and family history of CHD); and low risk included <2 risk factors. Of 7629 respondents with dyslipidemia, 35% reported not taking cholesterol medication, and 29% reported not knowing their heart disease risk. For respondents treated for dyslipidemia, 27% reported not knowing their risk, and of the 73% who reported knowing, 24% to 35% reported the same risk level as ATP III risk. For respondents with untreated dyslipidemia, 33% reported not knowing their risk, and of the 67% who reported knowing, 20% to 37% reported the same risk as ATP III risk.

Conclusions— A large proportion of respondents with dyslipidemia did not know their heart disease risk. Among those who reported knowing their risk level, >60% of respondents did not classify themselves at the same ATP III-defined risk level. There is a gap in understanding and awareness of heart disease risk among respondents with dyslipidemia regardless of treatment status.

  S Seliger , K. M Fox , S. R Gandra , B Bradbury , V. D Hsu , L Walker , C. F Chiou and J. C. Fink

Background and objectives: The severity of anemia at which to initiate erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) treatment in nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is unclear. Risk of mortality, hospitalizations, and blood transfusion were compared among nondialysis CKD patients with "early" versus "delayed" ESA initiation.

Design, setting, participants, & measurements: A retrospective cohort study was conducted on CKD (estimated GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2) outpatients in the national Veterans Administration who were initiated on ESAs. Patients with ESRD, gastrointestinal bleeding, chemotherapy, or hematologic malignancy were excluded. Patients were characterized as having early [hemoglobin (Hb) 10.0 to 11.0 g/dl] or delayed (Hb 8.0 to 9.9 g/dl) ESA initiation. A propensity score comprising demographic, clinical, and laboratory variables was used to select a 1:1 matched cohort. Cox survival and negative binomial regression were used to compare the matched groups for all-cause mortality, hospitalizations, and blood transfusions.

Results: Of 1837 patients who met inclusion criteria, 1410 (77%) were successfully matched. The groups did not differ significantly in 31 characteristics reflecting sociodemographics, comorbidity, healthcare utilization, and renal function. There was no significant difference in mortality with early initiation. Those initiated early had a 17% lower risk of initial hospitalization and a 29% lower risk of transfusion compared with delayed initiation patients. Results did not differ between those with and without pre-ESA transfusion or hospitalization.

Conclusions: In nondialysis CKD, ESA initiation at Hb 10.0 to 11.0 g/dl compared with 8.0 to 9.9 g/dl is associated with reduced risk of blood transfusion and initial hospitalization.

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