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Articles by K. M Cummings
Total Records ( 4 ) for K. M Cummings
  A. E Latimer , K. E Green , K Schmid , J Tomasone , S Abrams , K. M Cummings , P Celestino , P Salovey , S Seshadri and B. A. Toll

Research suggests that smoking cessation messages are most persuasive when framed in terms of the benefits achieved from quitting (i.e. gain-framed) than when framed in terms of the costs of not quitting (i.e. loss-framed). It is unknown, however, if these findings about optimal message frames have been translated into public health practice. The current study examined message framing in telephone counseling sessions with smokers calling the New York State Smokers’ Quitline (NYSSQ). We conducted a content analysis of all NYSSQ print material and 12 Quitline service calls. Two independent raters coded each message within these documents as being gain-framed, loss-framed or non-framed. Messages from the service calls also were coded for their function (e.g. information provision, information gathering). Interrater reliability was acceptable (kappa > 0.80). Of the 997 print messages evaluated, 21.6% were gain-framed, 13.8% were loss-framed and 64.6% were non-framed. For the service calls, only the messages with an information provision function included framed content. Of the 420 information provision messages, 10.2% were gain-framed, 1.7% were loss-framed and 88.1% were non-framed. The loss-framed and non-framed messages indicate missed opportunities for providing gain-framed messages within the Quitline services, thus emphasizing a possible gap between research and practice.

  M Bansal Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , A Brown and P. Celestino

The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers’ Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group received counseling, nicotine patches and quit smoking guide; and experimental group received counseling, nicotine patches, quit guide, plus information about cigarette characteristics mailed in a brand-tailored box. Participants were contacted 1 month later to assess knowledge about cigarettes and actions taken to alter smoking behavior. The results found that respondents in the experimental condition were more likely to report using and sharing the test materials with others compared with the control condition. Overall mean knowledge scores for the experimental group were slightly higher compared with those who received the standard materials. Knowledge of cigarette ingredients was not related to quit attempts or quitting smoking. This study found that the experimental materials were better recalled and contributed to higher levels of knowledge about specific cigarette design features; however, this did not translate into changes in smoking behavior.

  G. N Connolly , C. M Carpenter , M. J Travers , K. M Cummings , A Hyland , M Mulcahy and L. Clancy

The present study examined indoor air quality in a global sample of smoke-free and smoking-permitted Irish pubs. We hypothesized that levels of respirable suspended particles, an important marker of secondhand smoke, would be significantly lower in smoke-free Irish pubs than in pubs that allowed smoking.


Indoor air quality was assessed in 128 Irish pubs in 15 countries between 21 January 2004 and 10 March 2006. Air quality was evaluated using an aerosol monitor, which measures the level of fine particle (PM2.5) pollution in the air. A standard measurement protocol was used by data collectors across study sites.


Overall, the level of air pollution inside smoke-free Irish pubs was 93% lower than the level found in pubs where smoking was permitted.


Levels of indoor air pollution can be massively reduced by enacting and enforcing smoke-free policies.

  S. A McKee , C Higbee , S O`Malley , L Hassan , R Borland , K. M Cummings , G Hastings , G. T Fong and A. Hyland

On 26 March 2006, Scotland implemented a smoke-free policy prohibiting smoking in indoor public venues, including bars and pubs. Drinking and smoking are highly associated behaviors, so we evaluated whether the regulations would decrease drinking behavior among smokers in public venues. We further assessed whether this effect would be more pronounced in heavier drinkers and whether decreases in drinking behavior in pubs would be offset by increased drinking in the home.


Participants (N = 1,059) were adult smokers and nonsmokers from Scotland and from the rest of the United Kingdom, which did not have comprehensive smoke-free policies during the study period. Data were collected using a random-digit–dialed telephone survey from February to March 2006, just prior to the policy implementation in Scotland. Follow-up surveys were conducted in March 2007. Using baseline data, we categorized participants as abstainers, moderate drinkers, or heavy drinkers.


Overall, results demonstrated that drinking behavior did not change significantly in Scotland compared with the rest of the United Kingdom following implementation of the smoke-free policy in Scotland. However, planned comparisons examining mean changes in drinks consumed in pubs or bars following the legislation demonstrated that the smoke-free legislation was associated with reduced drinking behavior in pubs and bars among moderate- and heavy-drinking smokers in Scotland. These moderate- and heavy-drinking Scottish smokers also reduced their pub attendance following policy implementation.


The smoke-free Scottish law did not increase drinking in the home. These findings suggest that smoke-free policies may have additional public health benefits for those at greater risk for alcohol-related health problems.

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