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Articles by K. J Rask
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. J Rask
  J. L Schnipper , C. L Roumie , C Cawthon , A Businger , A. K Dalal , I Mugalla , S Eden , T. A Jacobson , K. J Rask , V Vaccarino , T. K Gandhi , D. W Bates , D. C Johnson , S Labonville , D Gregory , S Kripalani and for the PILL CVD Study Group

Background— Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high-risk patients such as those with low health literacy.

Methods and Results— The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers—Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomly assigned to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost-effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomly assigned to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy.

Conclusions— The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge.

Clinical Trial Registration— Identifier: NCT00632021.

  K. J Rask , D. C Ziemer , S. A Kohler , J. N Hawley , F. J Arinde and C. S. Barnes


The purpose of this study is to assess the validity of the patient activation construct as measured by the Patient Activation Measure (PAM) survey by correlating PAM scores with diabetes self-management behaviors, attitudes, and knowledge in a predominantly minority and uninsured population.


A convenience sample of patients presenting to an urban public hospital diabetes clinic was surveyed and contacted by phone 6 months later. The survey included questions about activation, health behaviors, and health care utilization.


A total of 287 patients agreed to participate. Most were African American, female, and uninsured. Most respondents (62.2%) scored in the highest category of activation according to the PAM. Activated patients were more likely to perform feet checks, receive eye examinations, and exercise regularly. Activation was consistently associated with less reported difficulty in managing diabetes care but not with A1C knowledge. PAM scores at the initial interview were highly correlated with scores at 6-month follow-up. Activation level did not predict differences in health care utilization during the 6 months following the survey.


Higher scores on the PAM were associated with higher rates of self-care behaviors and ease in managing diabetes; however, the indigent urban population reported higher activation scores than found in previous studies. The relationship between activation and outcomes needs to be explored further prior to expanding use of this measure in this patient population.

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