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Articles by K. A Anderson
Total Records ( 2 ) for K. A Anderson
  R. A Leos , M. J Anderson , X Chen , J Pugmire , K. A Anderson and S. W. Limesand

In this study, we examined chronic norepinephrine suppression of insulin secretion in sheep fetuses with placental insufficiency-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) was measured with a square-wave hyperglycemic clamp in the presence or absence of adrenergic receptor antagonists phentolamine () and propranolol (β). IUGR fetuses were hypoglycemic and hypoxemic and had lower GSIS responsiveness (P ≤ 0.05) than control fetuses. IUGR fetuses also had elevated plasma norepinephrine (3,264 ± 614 vs. 570 ± 86 pg/ml; P ≤ 0.05) and epinephrine (164 ± 32 vs. 60 ± 12 pg/ml; P ≤ 0.05) concentrations. In control fetuses, adrenergic inhibition increased baseline plasma insulin concentrations (1.7-fold, P ≤ 0.05), whereas during hyperglycemia insulin was not different. A greater (P ≤ 0.05) response to adrenergic inhibition was found in IUGR fetuses, and the average plasma insulin concentrations increased 4.9-fold at baseline and 7.1-fold with hyperglycemia. Unlike controls, basal plasma glucose concentrations fell (P ≤ 0.05) with adrenergic antagonists. GSIS responsiveness, measured by the change in insulin, was higher (8.9-fold, P ≤ 0.05) in IUGR fetuses with adrenergic inhibition than controls (1.8-fold, not significant), showing that norepinephrine suppresses insulin secretion in IUGR fetuses. Strikingly, in IUGR fetuses, adrenergic inhibition resulted in a greater GSIS responsiveness, because β-cell mass was 56% lower and the maximal stimulatory insulin response tended (P < 0.1) to be higher than controls. This persistent norepinephrine suppression appears to be partially explained by higher mRNA concentrations of adrenergic receptors 1D, 2A, and 2B in a cohort of fetuses that were naïve to the antagonists. Therefore, norepinephrine suppression of insulin secretion was maintained, in part, by upregulating adrenergic receptor expression, but the β-cells also appeared to compensate with enhanced GSIS. These findings may begin to explain why IUGR infants have a propensity for increased glucose requirements if norepinephrine is suddenly decreased after birth.

  K. A Anderson , A. M Cimbal and J. J. Maile

The "kind ear" provided by hairstylists (stylists) can be an important source of informal social support for their clients, yet little empirical research exists that examines this resource. In this study, the authors investigated the relationships and helping behaviors of stylists with one particular group of clients— older adults. Forty (N = 40) stylists from 31 randomly selected salons completed mail-based surveys. Stylists reported that their relationships with older clients were generally very close. When these older clients raised problems and concerns, stylists employed several different helping techniques, including showing sympathy and support. Stylists also reported that they were able to recognize symptoms of depression, dementia, and self-neglect. Finally, a number of stylists indicated that they would be interested in receiving formal training in mental health. These findings point toward the potential inclusion of stylists in community gatekeeper programs that provide an important link between informal and formal helping networks.

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