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Articles by K Yang
Total Records ( 6 ) for K Yang
  O Itano , K Yang , K Fan , N Kurihara , H Shinozaki , S Abe , B Jin , C Gravaghi , W Edelmann , L Augenlicht , L Kopelovich , R Kucherlapati , S Lamprecht and M. Lipkin
 

We have previously reported that sulindac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, inhibited tumor formation in the small intestine but increased tumors in the colon of ApcMin/+ mice, a model of human familial adenomatous polyposis. To further explore intestinal regional responses, we studied effects of sulindac on additional gene-targeted mouse models of human intestinal tumorigenesis; these were (i) Apc1638N/+ mouse (chain termination mutation in exon 15 of the Apc gene); (ii) Mlh1+/– mouse (DNA mismatch repair deficiency, a mouse model of human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer) and (iii) double-heterozygous Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mutant mouse. Mice were fed AIN-76A control diet with or without 0.02% sulindac for 6 months. Intestinal regional tumor incidence, multiplicity, volume and degree of inflammation were used as end points. The results showed the following: (i) sulindac inhibited tumor development in the small intestine of Apc1638N/+ mice; (ii) in contrast, sulindac increased tumors in the small intestine of Mlh1 mutant mice, a neoplastic effect which persisted in heterozygous compound Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mutant mice; (iii) sulindac increased tumors in the cecum of all mice regardless of genetic background; (iv) sulindac decreased inflammation in the small intestine of Apc1638N/+ mice, but it increased inflammation in the small intestine of Mlh1+/ mice and Mlh1+/–Apc1638N/+ mice and (v) sulindac enhanced inflammation in the cecum of all mutant mice. Findings indicate that the effects of sulindac in the intestine of these mutant mouse models are probably related to genetic background and appear to be associated with its inflammatory-inducing response.

  Y. H Ji , H Jung , K Yang , C. K Cho , S. Y Yoo , H. J Yoo , K. B Kim and M. S. Kim
  Objective

Study aims include determination of nationwide structural characteristics of radiation oncology facilities, types of radiation therapy equipment, availability of human resources and trends and comparisons with previous surveys.

Methods

An annual nationwide survey was conducted to collect the statistics of infrastructure since 1997. All requested questionnaires have been identical for 10 years. The questionnaires included status on basic radiation therapy facilities, human resources and radiation therapy equipment. Journal and statistical data reviews were performed to evaluate the structure of other countries.

Results

Radiation oncology facilities have steadily increased for 10 years and reached 60 sites in 2006. Also a steady increase of 1.5 times for linear accelerators, 5.8 times for computed tomography simulators and 3.0 times for radiation treatment planning systems was noted. Meanwhile, cobalt-60 teletherapy units and hyperthermia equipment had steadily deceased for 10 years. The number of human resources has steadily increased for the past 10 years, especially for radiation therapy technologists. However, radiation therapy equipment and human resources per population are relatively low compared with advanced countries.

Conclusions

This study will assist preparation of the administrative planning policy of radiation oncology and should be useful to indicate the direction of future development and educational training programs in Korea and possibly in other countries.

  M. M Curry , D. E Wheeler , K Yang and K. E. Anderson
 

We investigated the potential for gene flow in a dependent lineage (DL) system of the harvester ant Pogonomyrmex. Each DL system is composed of 2 reproductively isolated lineages that are locked in an obligate mutualism. The genetic components that produce the worker phenotype are acquired by hybridizing with the partner lineage. In the mating flight, queens of both lineages mate with multiple males from each lineage. During colony growth and reproduction, eggs fertilized by partner-lineage sperm produce F1 hybrid workers with interlineage genomes, whereas eggs fertilized by same-lineage sperm result in the development of new queens with intralineage genomes. New males are typically produced from unfertilized eggs laid by the pure-lineage queen but in her absence may be produced by interlineage F1 workers. We investigated the potential for interlineage gene flow in this system using 2 classes of lineage-specific nuclear markers to identify hybrid genome combinations. We confirmed the production of viable interlineage F1 reproductive females in field colonies, the occurrence of which is associated with the relative frequencies of each lineage in the population: interlineage F1 queens occurred only in the rare lineage of the population with dramatically skewed lineage frequencies. In laboratory colonies, we detected fair meiosis in interlineage F1 workers leading to the production of viable and haploid interlineage F2 males. We conclude that the genomes of each lineage recombine freely, suggesting that extrinsic postzygotic selection maintains the integrity of each lineage genome. We compare our findings with those of the H1/H2 DL system.

  K Yang , N Jeong , J. K Moon , Y. H Lee , S. H Lee , H. M Kim , C. H Hwang , K Back , R. G Palmer and S. C. Jeong
 

Soybean exhibits natural variation in flower and seed coat colors via the deposition of various anthocyanin pigments in the respective tissues. Although pigmentation in seeds or flowers has been well dissected at molecular level in several plant species, the genes controlling natural variation in anthocyanin traits in the soybean are not completely understood. To evaluate the genetic correlation between genetic loci and genes, 8 enzyme-encoding gene families and a transcription factor were localized in a soybean genome-wide genetic map. Among the seed coat color–controlling loci, the genetic location of the gene encoding for W1 was substantiated in the context of the current soybean molecular genetic map and O was postulated to correspond to anthocyanidin reductase. Among the genetic loci that regulate flower pigmentation, the genetic locations of the genes encoding for W1, W4, and Wp were identified, W3 was mapped on soybean linkage group B2 (chromosome 14), and W2 was postulated to correspond to an MYB transcription factor. Correlation studies between the developed markers and 3 color-controlling loci provided important empirical data that should prove useful in the design of marker-assisted breeding schemes as well as future association studies involving soybean.

  K Yang , E. R Chasens , S. M Sereika and L. E. Burke
 

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to examine the association between cardiovascular risk factors and the presence of diabetes in a large population-level dataset.

Methods

A secondary analysis was conducted using data from the 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, a population-based survey (n = 403,137) conducted in the United States.

Results

The majority of the respondents were middle-aged and overweight. Approximately half of the sample reported little or no physical activity. Estimates from a logistic regression model for a weighted sample of white, black, and Hispanic adults revealed that having hypertension or elevated cholesterol was a strong predictor of diabetes even when controlling for age, gender, race, education, income, body mass index, smoking status, and physical activity.

Conclusions

The results confirmed the importance of diabetes educators counseling patients with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia about their increased risk for developing diabetes.

 
 
 
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