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Articles by K Yamamoto
Total Records ( 15 ) for K Yamamoto
  T Imaizumi , Y Higaki , M Hara , T Sakamoto , M Horita , T Mizuta , Y Eguchi , T Yasutake , I Ozaki , K Yamamoto , S Onohara , S Kawazoe , H Shigematsu , S Koizumi , S Kudo and K. Tanaka
 

Limited epidemiological evidence suggests that genetic polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes such as cytochrome P450 (CYP), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and N-acetyltransferase (NAT) may be involved in tobacco-related hepatocarcinogenesis. We conducted a case–control study, including 209 incident cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and two different control groups [275 hospital controls and 381 patients with chronic liver disease (CLD) without HCC], to investigate whether CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2E1, GSTM1 and NAT2 polymorphisms are related to the risk of HCC with any interaction with cigarette smoking. Overall, no significant associations with HCC were observed for any genotypes against either control group. However, we found a significant interaction (P = 0.0045) between CYP1A2 -3860G>A polymorphism and current smoking on HCC risk when we compared HCC cases with CLD patients; adjusted odds ratios [ORs; and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)] for G/A and A/A genotypes relative to G/G genotype were 0.28 (0.12–0.66) and 0.18 (0.04–0.94), respectively, among current smokers (P trend = 0.002), as compared with 1.28 (0.80–2.06) and 0.76 (0.34–1.71), respectively, among never/former smokers (P trend = 0.96). Similarly, in CYP1A2 G/G genotype, significant risk increase was observed for current smoking (OR = 4.08, 95% CI = 2.02–8.25) or more recent cigarette use (e.g. pack-years during last 5 years, P trend = 0.0003) but not in G/A and A/A genotypes combined (OR for current smoking = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.63–3.03; P trend for pack-years during last 5 years = 0.40). These results suggest that the CYP1A2 -3860G>A polymorphism modifies the smoking-related HCC risk among CLD patients.

  N Suzuki , T. H Su , S. W Wu , K Yamamoto , K. H Khoo and Y. C Lee
 

We previously showed that the expression of (Gal1-4Gal)-bearing glycoproteins among birds is related to their phylogeny. However, precise structures of (Gal1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans were only known for pigeon egg white glycoproteins and IgG. To compare structural features of (Gal1-4Gal)-containing N-glycans from other species, we analyzed N-glycans of gull egg white (GEW)-glycoproteins, ovomucoid, and ovotransferrin, and gull egg yolk IgG by HPLC, mass spectrometry (MS), and MS/MS analyses. GEW-glycoproteins included neutral, monosialyl, and disialyl N-glycans, and some of them contained Gal1-4Gal sequences. Bi-, tri-, and tetra-antennary oligosaccharides that lacked bisecting GlcNAc were the major core structures, and incomplete -galactosylation and sialylation as well as the presence of diLacNAc on the branches generated microheterogeneity of the N-glycan structures. Moreover, unlike pigeon egg white glycoproteins, the major sialylation in GEW-glycoproteins is 2,3-, but not 2,6-linked sialic acids (NeuAc). In addition to the complex-type oligosaccharide, hybrid-type oligosaccharides that lack bisecting GlcNAc were also abundant in GEW-glycoproteins. Gull egg yolk IgG also contained Gal1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1- sequences, but unlike pigeon IgG, no Gal1-4Galβ1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1- sequence was detected. Bi- and tri-antennary complex-type oligosaccharides with bisecting GlcNAc and with core fucosylation as well as high-mannose-type oligosaccharides were the major structures in gull IgG. Our data indicated that some N-glycans from both GEW-glycoproteins and gull IgG contain the Gal1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1- sequence, but the ratio of -Gal-capped residues to non--Gal-capped residues in the nonreducing termini of N-glycans is much lower than that in those of pigeon glycoproteins.

  M Iemitsu , H Murakami , K Sanada , K Yamamoto , H Kawano , Y Gando and M. Miyachi
 

The TT genotype of C677T polymorphism in 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) induces elevation of homocysteine level and leads to atherosclerosis and arterial stiffening. Furthermore, cardiorespiratory fitness level is also associated with arterial stiffness. In the present study, a cross-sectional investigation of 763 Japanese men and women (18–70 yr old) was performed to clarify the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness on the relationship between arterial stiffness and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism. Arterial stiffness was assessed by carotid β-stiffness with ultrasonography and tonometry. The study subjects were divided into high-cardiorespiratory fitness (High-Fit) and low-cardiorespiratory fitness (Low-Fit) groups based on the median value of peak oxygen uptake in each sex and decade. The plasma homocysteine level was higher in the TT genotype of MTHFR C677T polymorphism compared with CC and CT genotype individuals. MTHFR C677T polymorphism showed no effect on carotid β-stiffness, but there was a significant interaction effect between fitness and MTHFR C677T polymorphism on carotid β-stiffness (P = 0.0017). In the Low-Fit subjects, carotid β-stiffness was significantly higher in individuals with the TT genotype than the CC and CT genotypes. However, there were no such differences in High-Fit subjects. In addition, β-stiffness and plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated in Low-Fit subjects with the TT genotype (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001), but no such correlations were observed in High-Fit subjects. In CC and CT genotype individuals, there were also no such correlations in either fitness level. These results suggest that the higher cardiorespiratory fitness may attenuate central artery stiffening associated with MTHFR C677T polymorphism.

  R Suzuki , T Katayama , M Kitaoka , H Kumagai , T Wakagi , H Shoun , H Ashida , K Yamamoto and S. Fushinobu
 

Endo--N-acetylgalactosaminidase (endo--GalNAc-ase), a member of the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 101, hydrolyses the O-glycosidic bonds in mucin-type O-glycan between -GalNAc and Ser/Thr. Endo--GalNAc-ase from Bifidobacterium longum JCM1217 (EngBF) is highly specific for the core 1-type O-glycan to release the disaccharide Galβ1-3GalNAc (GNB), whereas endo--GalNAc-ase from Clostridium perfringens (EngCP) exhibits broader substrate specificity. We determined the crystal structure of EngBF at 2.0 Å resolution and performed automated docking analysis to investigate possible binding modes of GNB. Mutational analysis revealed important residues for substrate binding, and two Trp residues (Trp748 and Trp750) appeared to form stacking interactions with the β-faces of sugar rings of GNB by substrate-induced fit. The difference in substrate specificities between EngBF and EngCP is attributed to the variations in amino acid sequences in the regions forming the substrate-binding pocket. Our results provide a structural basis for substrate recognition by GH101 endo--GalNAc-ases and will help structure-based engineering of these enzymes to produce various kinds of neo-glycoconjugates.

 
 
 
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