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Articles by K Wu
Total Records ( 5 ) for K Wu
  J Ding , G He , W Gong , W Wen , W Sun , B Ning , S Huang , K Wu , C Huang , M Wu , W Xie and H. Wang
 

Frequent exposure to nickel compounds has been considered as one of the potential causes of human lung cancer. However, the molecular mechanism of nickel-induced lung carcinogenesis remains obscure. In the current study, slight S-phase increase, significant G2/M cell cycle arrest, and proliferation blockage were observed in human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) upon nickel exposure. Moreover, the induction of cyclin D1 and cyclin E by nickel was shown for the first time in human pulmonary cells, which may be involved in nickel-triggered G1/S transition and cell transformation. In addition, we verified that hypoxia-inducible factor-1, an important transcription factor of nickel response, was not required for the cyclin D1 or cyclin E induction. The role of p53 in nickel-induced G2/M arrest was excluded, respecting that its protein level, ser15 phosphorylation, and transcriptional activity were not changed in nickel response. Further study revealed that cyclin A was not activated in nickel response, and cyclin B1, which not only promotes G2/M transition but also prevents M-phase exit of cells if not degraded in time, was up-regulated by nickel through a manner independent of hypoxia-inducible factor. More importantly, our results verified that overexpressed cyclin B1, veiling the effect of cyclin D1 or cyclin E, mediated nickel-caused M-phase blockage and cell growth inhibition, which may render pulmonary cells more sensitive to DNA damage and facilitates cancer initiation. These results will not only deepen our understanding of the molecular mechanism involved in nickel carcinogenecity, but also lead to the further study on chemoprevention of nickel-associated human cancer. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2009;18(6):1720–9)

  Y Gao , Y He , J Ding , K Wu , B Hu , Y Liu , Y Wu , B Guo , Y Shen , D Landi , S Landi , Y Zhou and H. Liu
 

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignancy caused by environmental and genetic factors. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short non-coding RNAs with posttranscriptional regulatory functions. They participate in diverse biological pathways and function as gene regulators. Genetic polymorphisms in 3' untranslated regions (3' UTRs) targeted by miRNAs alter the strength of miRNA binding, with consequences on regulation of target genes thereby affecting the individual's cancer risk. We have previously predicted polymorphisms falling in miRNA-binding regions of cancer genes. We selected an insertion/deletion (Indel) polymorphism (rs3783553) in the 3' UTR of interleukin (IL)-1 (IL1A) for a case–control study in a Chinese population. With samples from 403 HCC patients and 434 healthy control individuals, strong evidence of association was observed for the variant homozygote. This association was validated in a second independent case–control study with 1074 HCC patients and 1239 healthy control individuals (odds ratio = 0.62; 95% confidence interval = 0.49–0.78). We further show that the ‘TTCA’ insertion allele for rs3783553 disrupts a binding site for miR-122 and miR-378, thereby increasing transcription of IL-1 in vitro and in vivo. These findings suggest that functional polymorphism rs3783553 in IL1A could contribute to HCC susceptibility. Considering IL-1 affects not only various phases of the malignant process, such as carcinogenesis, tumor growth and invasiveness, but also patterns of interactions between malignant cells and the host's immune system, our results indicated that IL-1 may be a promising target for immunotherapy, early diagnosis and intervention of HCC.

  K Wu , A. L Blomgren , K Ekholm , B Weber , S Edsbaecker and G. Hochhaus
 

Newer inhaled glucocorticoids often show low systemic side effects because of their high protein binding. This study was interested in evaluating the effects of increased plasma protein and tissue binding on pulmonary receptor occupancy. Rats received des-ciclesonide (des-CIC; the active metabolite of the prodrug ciclesonide) and budesonide (BUD; a drug with lower protein binding but similar receptor affinity) as constant rate infusion over 6 h (intravenous bolus of 30 µg/kg, followed by 10 µg/h/kg over 6 h). Total and free glucocorticoid concentration in plasma and tissues, as well as the number of occupied lung glucocorticoid receptors, was determined. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model investigated the effects of varying plasma and tissue binding on pulmonary and systemic receptor occupancy after inhalation. After constant rate infusion, the total drug concentration in tissues and plasma was comparable for both drugs, whereas the free concentration of des-CIC in all the tissues and plasma was one fifth to one seventh that of BUD. This translated into lower receptor occupancy in the lung for des-CIC (49 ± 11%) than for BUD (94 ± 8%). The PK/PD model predicted lower receptor occupancy in the lung and the systemic tissues when a drug with pronounced binding was inhaled. Glucocorticoids with higher plasma and tissue binding might show not only lower systemic side effects but also reduced efficacy in the lung when given in a similar microgram dose.

  K Wu , A. L Blomgren , K Ekholm , B Weber , S Edsbaecker and G. Hochhaus
 

Newer inhaled glucocorticoids often show low systemic side effects because of their high protein binding. This study was interested in evaluating the effects of increased plasma protein and tissue binding on pulmonary receptor occupancy. Rats received des-ciclesonide (des-CIC; the active metabolite of the prodrug ciclesonide) and budesonide (BUD; a drug with lower protein binding but similar receptor affinity) as constant rate infusion over 6 h (intravenous bolus of 30 µg/kg, followed by 10 µg/h/kg over 6 h). Total and free glucocorticoid concentration in plasma and tissues, as well as the number of occupied lung glucocorticoid receptors, was determined. A pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model investigated the effects of varying plasma and tissue binding on pulmonary and systemic receptor occupancy after inhalation. After constant rate infusion, the total drug concentration in tissues and plasma was comparable for both drugs, whereas the free concentration of des-CIC in all the tissues and plasma was one fifth to one seventh that of BUD. This translated into lower receptor occupancy in the lung for des-CIC (49 ± 11%) than for BUD (94 ± 8%). The PK/PD model predicted lower receptor occupancy in the lung and the systemic tissues when a drug with pronounced binding was inhaled. Glucocorticoids with higher plasma and tissue binding might show not only lower systemic side effects but also reduced efficacy in the lung when given in a similar microgram dose.

 
 
 
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