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Articles by K Tsunekawa
Total Records ( 2 ) for K Tsunekawa
  Y. R Lee , K Tsunekawa , M. J Moon , H. N Um , J. I Hwang , T Osugi , N Otaki , Y Sunakawa , K Kim , H Vaudry , H. B Kwon , J. Y Seong and K. Tsutsui
 

Kisspeptin and its receptor GPR54 play important roles in mammalian reproduction and cancer metastasis. Because the KiSS and GPR54 genes have been identified in a limited number of vertebrate species, mainly in mammals, the evolutionary history of these genes is poorly understood. In the present study, we have cloned multiple forms of kisspeptin and GPR54 cDNAs from a variety of vertebrate species. We found that fish have two forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1 and KiSS-2, whereas Xenopus possesses three forms of kisspeptin genes, KiSS-1a, KiSS-1b, and KiSS-2. The nonmammalian KiSS-1 gene was found to be the ortholog of the mammalian KiSS-1 gene, whereas the KiSS-2 gene is a novel form, encoding a C-terminally amidated dodecapeptide in the Xenopus brain. This study is the first to identify a mature form of KiSS-2 product in the brain of any vertebrate. Likewise, fish possess two receptors, GPR54-1 and GPR54-2, whereas Xenopus carry three receptors, GPR54-1a, GPR54-1b, and GPR54-2. Sequence identity and genome synteny analyses indicate that Xenopus GPR54-1a is a human GPR54 ortholog, whereas Xenopus GPR54-1b is a fish GPR54-1 ortholog. Both kisspeptins and GPR54s were abundantly expressed in the Xenopus brain, notably in the hypothalamus, suggesting that these ligand-receptor pairs have neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory roles. Synthetic KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 peptides activated GPR54s expressed in CV-1 cells with different potencies, indicating differential ligand selectivity. These data shed new light on the molecular evolution of the kisspeptin-GPR54 system in vertebrates.

  K Tsunekawa , T Shijuku , M Hayashimoto , Y Kojima , K Onai , M Morishita , M Ishiura , T Kuroda , T Nakamura , H Kobayashi , M Sato , K Toyooka , K Matsuoka , T Omata and N. Uozumi
 

Na+/H+ antiporters influence proton or sodium motive force across the membrane. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has six genes encoding Na+/H+ antiporters, nhaS1–5 and sll0556. In this study, the function of NhaS3 was examined. NhaS3 was essential for growth of Synechocystis, and loss of nhaS3 was not complemented by expression of the Escherichia coli Na+/H+ antiporter NhaA. Membrane fractionation followed by immunoblotting as well as immunogold labeling revealed that NhaS3 was localized in the thylakoid membrane of Synechocystis. NhaS3 was shown to be functional over a pH range from pH 6.5 to 9.0 when expressed in E. coli. A reduction in the copy number of nhaS3 in the Synechocystis genome rendered the cells more sensitive to high Na+ concentrations. NhaS3 had no K+/H+ exchange activity itself but enhanced K+ uptake from the medium when expressed in an E. coli potassium uptake mutant. Expression of nhaS3 increased after shifting from low CO2 to high CO2 conditions. Expression of nhaS3 was also found to be controlled by the circadian rhythm. Gene expression peaked at the beginning of subjective night. This coincided with the time of the lowest rate of CO2 consumption caused by the ceasing of O2-evolving photosynthesis. This is the first report of a Na+/H+ antiporter localized in thylakoid membrane. Our results suggested a role of NhaS3 in the maintenance of ion homeostasis of H+, Na+, and K+ in supporting the conversion of photosynthetic products and in the supply of energy in the dark.

 
 
 
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