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Articles by K Taguchi
Total Records ( 5 ) for K Taguchi
  M. S Yates , Q. T Tran , P. M Dolan , W. O Osburn , S Shin , C. C McCulloch , J. B Silkworth , K Taguchi , M Yamamoto , C. R Williams , K. T Liby , M. B Sporn , T. R Sutter and T. W. Kensler
 

Loss of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling increases susceptibility to acute toxicity, inflammation and carcinogenesis in mice due to the inability to mount adaptive responses. In contrast, disruption of Keap1 (a cytoplasmic modifier of Nrf2 turnover) protects against these stresses in mice, although inactivating mutations in Keap1 have been identified recently in some human cancers. Global characterization of Nrf2 activation is important to exploit this pathway for chemoprevention in healthy, yet at-risk individuals and also to elucidate the consequences of hijacking the pathway in Keap1-mutant human cancers. Liver-targeted conditional Keap1-null, Albumin-Cre:Keap1(flox/–) (CKO) mice provide a model of genetic activation of Nrf2 signaling. By coupling global gene expression analysis of CKO mice with analysis of pharmacologic activation using the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), we are able to gain insight into pathways affected by Nrf2 activation. CDDO-Im is an extremely potent activator of Nrf2 signaling. CKO mice were used to identify genes modulated by genetic activation of Nrf2 signaling. The CKO response was compared with hepatic global gene expression changes in wild-type mice treated with CDDO-Im at a maximal Nrf2 activating dose. The results show that genetic and pharmacologic activation of Nrf2 signaling modulates pathways beyond detoxication and cytoprotection, with the largest cluster of genes associated with lipid metabolism. Genetic activation of Nrf2 results in much larger numbers of detoxication and lipid metabolism gene changes. Additionally, analysis of pharmacologic activation suggests that Nrf2 is the primary mediator of CDDO-Im activity, though other cell-signaling targets are also modulated following an oral dose of 30 µmol/kg.

  M. O Kelleher , M McMahon , I. M Eggleston , M. J Dixon , K Taguchi , M Yamamoto and J. D. Hayes
 

Epithionitriles represent a previously unrecognized class of cancer chemopreventive phytochemical generated from alkenyl glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables. In rat liver RL-34 epithelial cells, 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane (CETP), 1-cyano-3,4-epithiobutane (CETB) and 1-cyano-4,5-epithiopentane (CETPent) were shown to induce cytoprotective enzymes including NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), glutathione (GSH) S-transferase A3 and the glutamate–cysteine ligase modifier subunit; CETP was more potent in this regard than were either CETB or CETPent, with 50 µM CETP eliciting a remarkable ~10-fold induction of NQO1. Furthermore, 50 µM CETP stimulated a 2.0-fold overproduction of GSH in RL-34 cells. Transfection experiments demonstrated that epithionitriles induced gene expression through an antioxidant response element (ARE) and that transactivation of an Nqo1-luciferase reporter plasmid was dependent on NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a cap'n'collar basic region leucine zipper transcription factor. Evidence is presented that CETP affected Nrf2-mediated induction of ARE-driven transcription by inhibiting Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), a ubiquitin ligase substrate adaptor that negatively regulates Nrf2. We found that Nqo1 was expressed constitutively at high levels in Keap1–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and it was not further induced by CETP. However, knock-in of mouse Keap1 or zebrafish Keap1a into Keap1–/– MEFs repressed Nqo1-luciferase reporter gene activity, but repression by the murine or zebrafish proteins was antagonized by CETP. Pre-treatment of Nrf2+/+ MEFs, but not Nrf2–/– MEFs, with 15 µM CETP for 24 h conferred 2.4-fold resistance against subsequent exposure to the ,β-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein, indicating that the phytochemical exerts chemopreventive properties against genotoxic xenobiotics.

  H Satoh , T Moriguchi , K Taguchi , J Takai , J. M Maher , T Suzuki , P. T Winnard , V Raman , M Ebina , T Nukiwa and M. Yamamoto
 

The Nrf2 transcription factor is crucial for regulating the cellular defense against various carcinogens. However, relationship between host Nrf2 and cancer metastasis remains unexplored. To address this issue, we examined susceptibility of Nrf2-deficient mice to pulmonary cancer metastasis following implantation of the mouse Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cell line. Nrf2-deficient mice reproducibly exhibited a higher number of pulmonary metastatic nodules than wild-type mice did. The lung and bone marrow (BM) of cancer-bearing Nrf2-deficient mice contained increased numbers of inflammatory cells, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), a potent population of immunosuppressive cells. MDSCs can attenuate CD8+ T-cell immunity through modification of the T-cell receptor complex exploiting reactive oxygen species (ROS). MDSCs of Nrf2-deficient mice retained elevated levels of ROS relative to wild-type mice. BM transplantation experiments revealed functional disturbance in the hematopoietic and immune systems of Nrf2-deficient mice. Wild-type recipient mice with Nrf2-deficient BM cells showed increased levels of lung metastasis after cancer cell inoculation. These mice exhibited high-level accumulation of ROS in MDSCs, which showed very good coincidence to the decrease of splenic CD8+ T-cells. In contrast, Keap1-knockdown mutant mice harboring high-level Nrf2 expression displayed increased resistance against the cancer cell metastasis to the lung, accompanied by a decrease in ROS in the MDSCs fraction. Our results thus reveal a novel function for Nrf2 in the prevention of cancer metastasis, presumably by its ability to preserve the redox balance in the hematopoietic and immune systems.

  K Taguchi , Y Urata , M Anraku , T Maruyama , H Watanabe , H Sakai , H Horinouchi , K Kobayashi , E Tsuchida , T Kai and M. Otagiri
 

The hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier that encapsulates a concentrated Hb solution in lipid vesicles (liposomes). The pharmacokinetic properties of HbV were investigated in mice and rats. With use of HbV in which the internal Hb was labeled with 125I (125I-HbV) and cell-free 125I-Hb, it was found that encapsulation of Hb increased the half-life by 30 times, accompanied by decreased distribution in both the liver and kidney. The half-life of HbV was increased, and the uptake clearance for the liver and spleen were decreased with increasing doses of HbV. In an in vitro study, the specific uptake and degradation of HbV in RAW 264.7 cells were found, but this was not the case for parenchymal and endothelial cells. The pharmacokinetics of HbV components (internal Hb and liposomal lipid) were also investigated using 125I-HbV and 3H-HbV (liposomal cholesterol was radiolabeled with tritium-3). The time courses for the plasma concentration curves of 125I-HbV, 3H-HbV, and iron derived from HbV suggest that HbV maintain an intact structure in the blood circulation up to 24 h after injection. 125I-HbV and 3H-HbV were distributed mainly to the liver and spleen. Internal Hb disappeared from both the liver and spleen 5 days after injection, and the liposomal cholesterol disappeared at approximately 14 days. Internal Hb was excreted into the urine and cholesterol into feces via biliary excretion. These results suggest that the HbV has a reasonable blood retention and metabolic and excretion performance and could be used as an oxygen carrier.

  K Taguchi , Y Urata , M Anraku , T Maruyama , H Watanabe , H Sakai , H Horinouchi , K Kobayashi , E Tsuchida , T Kai and M. Otagiri
 

The hemoglobin vesicle (HbV) is an artificial oxygen carrier that encapsulates a concentrated Hb solution in lipid vesicles (liposomes). The pharmacokinetic properties of HbV were investigated in mice and rats. With use of HbV in which the internal Hb was labeled with 125I (125I-HbV) and cell-free 125I-Hb, it was found that encapsulation of Hb increased the half-life by 30 times, accompanied by decreased distribution in both the liver and kidney. The half-life of HbV was increased, and the uptake clearance for the liver and spleen were decreased with increasing doses of HbV. In an in vitro study, the specific uptake and degradation of HbV in RAW 264.7 cells were found, but this was not the case for parenchymal and endothelial cells. The pharmacokinetics of HbV components (internal Hb and liposomal lipid) were also investigated using 125I-HbV and 3H-HbV (liposomal cholesterol was radiolabeled with tritium-3). The time courses for the plasma concentration curves of 125I-HbV, 3H-HbV, and iron derived from HbV suggest that HbV maintain an intact structure in the blood circulation up to 24 h after injection. 125I-HbV and 3H-HbV were distributed mainly to the liver and spleen. Internal Hb disappeared from both the liver and spleen 5 days after injection, and the liposomal cholesterol disappeared at approximately 14 days. Internal Hb was excreted into the urine and cholesterol into feces via biliary excretion. These results suggest that the HbV has a reasonable blood retention and metabolic and excretion performance and could be used as an oxygen carrier.

 
 
 
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