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Articles by K Shinmura
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Shinmura
  M Goto , K Shinmura , H Igarashi , M Kobayashi , H Konno , H Yamada , M Iwaizumi , S Kageyama , T Tsuneyoshi , S Tsugane and H. Sugimura

A base excision repair enzyme, NTH1, has activity that is capable of removing oxidized pyrimidines, such as thymine glycol (Tg), from DNA. To clarify whether the NTH1 gene is involved in gastric carcinogenesis, we first examined the NTH1 expression level in eight gastric cancer cell lines, and the results showed that NTH1 expression was downregulated in all of them, including cell line AGS. Next, a comparison of excisional repair activity against Tg by empty vector-transfected AGS clones and FLAG-NTH1-expressing AGS clones showed that a low NTH1 expression level led to low capacity to repair the damaged base in the gastric epithelial cells. Reduced messenger RNA expression of NTH1 was also detected in 36% (18/50) of primary gastric cancers. Moreover, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NTH1 was predominantly localized in the cytoplasm in 24% (12/50) of the primary gastric cancers in contrast to the nuclear localization in non-cancerous tissue, suggesting impaired excisional repair ability for nuclear DNA. No associations between clinicopathological factors and NTH1 expression level or localization pattern were detected in the gastric cancers. Next, we found two novel genetic polymorphisms, i.e. c.-163C>G and c.-241_-221del, in the NTH1 promoter region, and a luciferase assay showed that both were associated with reduced promoter activity. However, there were no associations between the polymorphisms and risk of gastric cancer in a gastric cancer case–control study. These findings suggested that downregulation of NTH1 expression and abnormal localization of NTH1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of a subset of gastric cancers.

  Q Li , Y Guo , Q Ou , C Cui , W. J Wu , W Tan , X Zhu , L. B Lanceta , S. K Sanganalmath , B Dawn , K Shinmura , G. D Rokosh , S Wang and R. Bolli

Background— Although inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is known to impart powerful protection against myocardial infarction, the mechanism for this salubrious action remains unclear.

Methods and Results— Adenovirus-mediated iNOS gene transfer in mice resulted 48 to 72 hours later in increased expression not only of iNOS protein but also of heme oxygenase (HO)-1 mRNA and protein; HO-2 protein expression did not change. iNOS gene transfer markedly reduced infarct size in wild-type mice, but this effect was completely abrogated in HO-1–/– mice. At 48 hours after iNOS gene transfer, nuclear factor-B was markedly activated. In transgenic mice with cardiomyocyte-restricted expression of a dominant negative mutant of IB (IBS32A,S36A), both basal HO-1 levels and upregulation of HO-1 by iNOS gene transfer were suppressed. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of mouse hearts provided direct evidence that nuclear factor-B subunits p50 and p65 were recruited to the HO-1 gene promoter (–468 to –459 bp) 48 hours after iNOS gene transfer.

Conclusions— This study demonstrates for the first time the existence of a close functional coupling between cardiac iNOS and cardiac HO-1: iNOS upregulates HO-1 by augmenting nuclear factor-B binding to the region of the HO-1 gene promoter from –468 to –459 bp, and HO-1 then mediates the cardioprotective effects of iNOS. These results also reveal an important role of nuclear factor-B in both basal and iNOS-induced expression of cardiac HO-1. Collectively, the present findings significantly expand our understanding of the regulation of cardiac HO-1 and of the mechanism whereby iNOS exerts its cardioprotective actions.

  J Endo , M Sano , T Katayama , T Hishiki , K Shinmura , S Morizane , T Matsuhashi , Y Katsumata , Y Zhang , H Ito , Y Nagahata , S Marchitti , K Nishimaki , A. M Wolf , H Nakanishi , F Hattori , V Vasiliou , T Adachi , I Ohsawa , R Taguchi , Y Hirabayashi , S Ohta , M Suematsu , S Ogawa and K. Fukuda

Rationale: Aldehyde accumulation is regarded as a pathognomonic feature of oxidative stress–associated cardiovascular disease.

Objective: We investigated how the heart compensates for the accelerated accumulation of aldehydes.

Methods and Results: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) has a major role in aldehyde detoxification in the mitochondria, a major source of aldehydes. Transgenic (Tg) mice carrying an Aldh2 gene with a single nucleotide polymorphism (Aldh2*2) were developed. This polymorphism has a dominant-negative effect and the Tg mice exhibited impaired ALDH activity against a broad range of aldehydes. Despite a shift toward the oxidative state in mitochondrial matrices, Aldh2*2 Tg hearts displayed normal left ventricular function by echocardiography and, because of metabolic remodeling, an unexpected tolerance to oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion injury. Mitochondrial aldehyde stress stimulated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 phosphorylation. Subsequent translational and transcriptional activation of activating transcription factor-4 promoted the expression of enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis and transport, ultimately providing precursor amino acids for glutathione biosynthesis. Intracellular glutathione levels were increased 1.37-fold in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts compared with wild-type controls. Heterozygous knockout of Atf4 blunted the increase in intracellular glutathione levels in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts, thereby attenuating the oxidative stress–resistant phenotype. Furthermore, glycolysis and NADPH generation via the pentose phosphate pathway were activated in Aldh2*2 Tg hearts. (NADPH is required for the recycling of oxidized glutathione.)

Conclusions: The findings of the present study indicate that mitochondrial aldehyde stress in the heart induces metabolic remodeling, leading to activation of the glutathione–redox cycle, which confers resistance against acute oxidative stress induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

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