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Articles by K Shimizu
Total Records ( 5 ) for K Shimizu
  T Sakurai , S Trirongjitmoah , Y Nishibata , T Namita , M Tsuji , S. P Hui , S Jin , K Shimizu and H. Chiba

A simple method for the measurement of LDL particle sizes is needed in clinical laboratories because a predominance of small, dense LDL (sd LDL) has been associated with coronary heart disease. We applied dynamic light scattering (DLS) to measure lipoprotein particle sizes, with special reference to sd LDL.


Human serum lipoproteins isolated by a combination of ultracentrifugation and gel chromatography, or by sequential ultracentrifugation, were measured for particle size using DLS.


The sizes of polystyrene beads, with diameters of 21 and 28 nm according to the manufacturer, were determined by DLS as 19.3 ± 1.0 nm (mean ± SD, n = 11) and 25.5 ± 1.0 nm, respectively. The coefficients of variation for the 21 and 28 nm beads were 5.1% and 3.8% (within-run, n = 11), and 2.9% and 6.2% (between-run, n = 3), respectively. The lipoprotein sizes determined by DLS for lipoprotein fractions isolated by chromatography were consistent with the elution profile. Whole serum, four isolated lipoprotein fractions (CM + VLDL + IDL, large LDL, sd LDL and HDL) and a non-lipoprotein fraction isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation were determined by DLS to be 13.1 ± 7.5, 37.0 ± 5.2, 21.5 ± 0.8, 20.3 ± 1.1, 8.6 ± 1.5 and 8.8 ± 2.0 nm, respectively.


The proposed DLS method can differentiate the sizes of isolated lipoprotein particles, including large LDL and sd LDL, and might be used in clinical laboratories in combination with convenient lipoprotein separation.

  K Kamiya , K Shimizu , A Igarashi , F Hikita and M. Komatsu

Objective  To assess the long-term clinical outcomes of implantation of a lens consisting of a biocompatible collagen copolymer (Visian implantable Collamer lens [ICL]; STAAR Surgical, Nidau, Switzerland) for moderate to high myopia.

Methods  We evaluated 56 eyes of 34 patients with myopic refractive errors of –4.00 to –15.25 diopters (D) who underwent ICL implantation and routine postoperative examinations. Before and 1, 3, and 6 months and 1, 2, and 4 years after surgery, we assessed the safety, efficacy, predictability, stability, and adverse events of the surgery.

Results  Mean (SD) logMAR uncorrected and best spectacle-corrected visual acuities were –0.03 (0.23) and –0.21 (0.09), respectively, at 4 years after surgery. The mean (SD) safety and efficacy indexes were 1.19 (0.25) and 0.83 (0.29), respectively. At 4 years, 44 (79%) and 52 (93%) of the eyes were within ±0.5 and ±1.0 D, respectively, of the targeted correction. Mean (SD) manifest refraction changes of –0.24 (0.57) D occurred from 1 month to 4 years after surgery. No vision-threatening complications occurred during the observation period.

Conclusion  Implantation of ICLs is safe and effective and provides predictable and stable refractive results in the treatment of moderate to high myopia during a 4-year observation period, suggesting its viability as a surgical option for the treatment of such eyes.

  T Tashiro , E Sekine Kondo , T Shigeura , R Nakagawa , S Inoue , M Omori Miyake , T Chiba , N Hongo , S. i Fujii , K Shimizu , Y Yoshiga , T Sumida , K Mori , H Watarai and M. Taniguchi

NKT cells are characterized by their production of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines immediately after stimulation with -galactosylceramide (-GalCer), which is composed of -galactopyranose linked to ceramide (itself composed of sphingosine and fatty-acyl chains); the chain length of the ceramide varies and this affects the ability of -GalCer to stimulate cytokine production. However, the contribution of its galactopyranose sugar moiety remains unclear. We synthesized -carba-GalCer, which has an -linked carba-galactosyl moiety; here, the 5a'-oxygen atom of the D-galactopyranose ring of -GalCer is replaced by a methylene group. The -carba-GalCer was more stable and showed higher affinity to the NKT receptor. It thus enhanced and prolonged production of IL-12 and IFN- compared with -GalCer, resulting in augmented NKT cell-mediated adjuvant effects in vivo. The -carba-GalCer, which has an ether linkage, was more resistant to degradation by liver microsomes than was -GalCer, which has an acetal bond. Modulation of the sugar moiety in glycolipids might therefore provide optimal therapeutic reagents for protective immune responses against tumor or pathogens.

  A Ogawa , K Shimizu , N Akizuki and Y. Uchitomi

Close collaboration between the cancer care team service and the psychiatric consultation service is recommended to provide adequate comprehensive care to cancer patients. In Japan, specialized palliative care teams work in conjunction with consultation-liaison psychiatrists as an essential members. There are, however, few studies reporting on these services.


We obtained the characteristics, physical and psychiatric symptoms and outcomes of cancer patients by analyzing the database of patients referred to the palliative care team at the National Cancer Center Hospital East, Japan.


Among consecutive 2000 referrals, most patients referred to the palliative care team present both physical and psychiatric symptoms. Psychiatric diagnoses were provided for ~70% of these patients. Consultation-liaison psychiatrists provided medical care to 80% of all the referrals. The main symptoms for psychiatric consultation were delirium (28%), adjustment disorder (18%), major depression (7.6%) and dementia (6.6%).


Psychiatric problems are common in cancer patients of the palliative care team. The palliative care team should assess the psychiatric problems in cancer patients, and the involvement of the consultation-liaison psychiatrists in the palliative care teams may be one of the strategies to establish the psychosocial support for cancer patients in the acute hospital settings.

  K Yamauchi , K Wakahara , M Fukuta , K Matsumoto , H Sumi , K Shimizu and K. Miyamoto

Background: Little epidemiological research on characteristics of upper extremity injuries resulting from snowboarding has been conducted, particularly in relation to snowboarding stance, falling direction, and the side of the body where the injury occurs.

Hypothesis: Snowboarding stance and the direction of the fall may influence the frequency of the side or the location of the upper extremity injury.

Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study.

Methods: This study analyzed the information obtained from 1918 patients with fractures or dislocations of the upper extremity (excluding the fingers and scapula) sustained during snowboarding/sliding between 2000 and 2008. Diagnosis, injured part and side, stance (regular or goofy), and falling directions were prospectively analyzed. Associations among these parameters were also analyzed.

Results: As characterized by skill level, patients were beginners (57.9%), intermediates (38.0%), and experts (4.0%). Eighty-eight percent had not received instruction from licensed instructors. Diagnoses included wrist fractures (53.7%), upper arm fractures (16.8%), shoulder dislocations (11.5%), and elbow dislocations (9.8%). In sum, 1742 (90.8%) patients were in regular stance when they fell, whereas 176 (9.2%) were in goofy stance. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of the injured side between the 2 stances. When the injured sides were classified according to the sliding direction, wrist fractures (61.7%) occurred on the side opposite the sliding direction, whereas shoulder dislocations (65.6%), upper arm fractures (82.9%), and elbow dislocations (79.8%) occurred on the same side as the sliding direction. When the injured sides were classified according to the falling direction, wrist fractures (68.1%) and elbow dislocations (63.5%) occurred because of backward falls, and shoulder dislocations (68.9%) and upper arm fractures (60.7%) occurred because of forward falls.

Conclusion: Two snowboarding stances as well as 2 falling directions had a significant influence on the frequency of the injured side in the upper extremity.

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