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Articles by K Palczewski
Total Records ( 2 ) for K Palczewski
  S. M O'Byrne , Y Kako , R. J Deckelbaum , I. H Hansen , K Palczewski , I. J Goldberg and W. S. Blaner
 

Retinoids are absolutely required for normal growth and development during the postnatal period. We studied the delivery of retinoids to milk, availing of mouse models modified for proteins thought to be essential for this process. Milk retinyl esters were markedly altered in mice lacking the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (Lrat–/–), indicating that this enzyme is normally responsible for the majority of retinyl esters incorporated into milk and not an acyl-CoA dependent enzyme, as proposed in the literature. Unlike wild-type milk, much of the retinoid in Lrat–/– milk is unesterified retinol, not retinyl ester. The composition of the residual retinyl ester present in Lrat–/– milk was altered from predominantly retinyl palmitate and stearate to retinyl oleate and medium chain retinyl esters. This was accompanied by increased palmitate and decreased oleate in Lrat–/– milk triglycerides. In other studies, we investigated the role of retinol-binding protein in retinoid delivery for milk formation. We found that Rbp–/– mice maintain milk retinoid concentrations similar to those in matched wild-type mice. This appears to arise due to greater postprandial delivery of retinoid, a lipoprotein lipase (LPL)-dependent pathway. Importantly, LPL also acts to assure delivery of long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) to milk. The fatty acid transporter CD36 also facilitated LCFA but not retinoid incorporation into milk. Our data show that compensatory pathways for the delivery of retinoids ensure their optimal delivery and that LRAT is the most important enzyme for milk retinyl ester formation.

  J Huang , Z Xu , D Wang , C. M Ogata , K Palczewski , X Lee and N. M. Young
 

The Maclura pomifera agglutinin (MPA) recognizes the T-antigen disaccharide Galβ1,3GalNAc mainly through interaction of the -GalNAc moiety with its primary site, but the interactions of the two flanking subsites A and B with aglycones and substituents other than Gal, respectively, are not well understood. We therefore characterized the specificity of MPA in more detail by glycan microarray analysis and determined the crystal structures of MPA without ligand and in complexes with Galβ1,3GalNAc and p-nitrophenyl -GalNAc. In both sugar complexes, pairs of ligands created inter-tetramer hydrogen-bond bridging networks. While subsite A showed increased affinity for hydrophobic aglycones, it also accommodated several sugar substituents. Notably, a GalNAc-O-tripeptide, a Tn-antigen mimic, showed lower affinity than these compounds in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) experiments. The glycan array data that showed subsite B accepted compounds in which the O3 position of the GalNAc was substituted with various sugars other than Gal, but substitutions at O6 led to inactivity. Additions to the Gal moiety of the disaccharide also had only small effects on reactivity. These results are all compatible with the features seen in the crystal structures.

 
 
 
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