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Articles by K Nishida
Total Records ( 6 ) for K Nishida
  B Burstein , P Comtois , G Michael , K Nishida , L Villeneuve , Y. H Yeh and S. Nattel
 

Rationale: Although connexin changes are important for the ventricular arrhythmic substrate in congestive heart failure (CHF), connexin alterations during CHF-related atrial arrhythmogenic remodeling have received limited attention.

Objective: To analyze connexin changes and their potential contribution to the atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate during the development and reversal of CHF.

Methods and Results: Three groups of dogs were studied: CHF induced by 2-week ventricular tachypacing (240 bpm, n=15); CHF dogs allowed a 4-week nonpaced recovery interval after 2-week tachypacing (n=16); and nonpaced sham controls (n=19). Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressure and atrial refractory periods increased with CHF and normalized on CHF recovery. CHF caused abnormalities in atrial conduction indexes and increased the duration of burst pacing-induced AF (DAF, from 22±7 seconds in control to 1100±171 seconds, P<0.001). CHF did not significantly alter overall atrial connexin (Cx)40 and Cx43 mRNA and protein expression levels, but produced Cx43 dephosphorylation, increased Cx40/Cx43 protein expression ratio and caused Cx43 redistribution toward transverse cell-boundaries. All of the connexin-alterations reversed on CHF recovery, but CHF-induced conduction abnormalities and increased DAF (884±220 seconds, P<0.001 versus control) remained. The atrial fibrous tissue content increased from 3.6±0.7% in control to 14.7±1.5% and 13.3±2.3% in CHF and CHF recovery, respectively (both P<0.01 versus control), with transversely running zones of fibrosis physically separating longitudinally directed muscle bundles. In an ionically based action potential/tissue model, fibrosis was able to account for conduction abnormalities associated with CHF and recovery.

Conclusions: CHF causes atrial connexin changes, but these are not essential for CHF-related conduction disturbances and AF promotion, which are rather related primarily to fibrotic interruption of muscle bundle continuity.

  R Wakili , Y. H Yeh , X Yan Qi , M Greiser , D Chartier , K Nishida , A Maguy , L. R Villeneuve , P Boknik , N Voigt , J Krysiak , S Kaab , U Ravens , W. A Linke , G. J. M Stienen , Y Shi , J. C Tardif , U Schotten , D Dobrev and S. Nattel
  Background—

Atrial fibrillation impairs atrial contractility, inducing atrial stunning that promotes thromboembolic stroke. Action potential (AP)-prolonging drugs are reported to normalize atrial hypocontractility caused by atrial tachycardia remodeling (ATR). Here, we addressed the role of AP duration (APD) changes in ATR-induced hypocontractility.

Methods and Results—

ATR (7-day tachypacing) decreased APD (perforated patch recording) by 50%, atrial contractility (echocardiography, cardiomyocyte video edge detection), and [Ca2+]i transients. ATR AP waveforms suppressed [Ca2+]i transients and cell shortening of control cardiomyocytes; whereas control AP waveforms improved [Ca2+]i transients and cell shortening in ATR cells. However, ATR cardiomyocytes clamped with the same control AP waveform had 60% smaller [Ca2+]i transients and cell shortening than control cells. We therefore sought additional mechanisms of contractile impairment. Whole-cell voltage clamp revealed reduced ICaL; ICaL inhibition superimposed on ATR APs further suppressed [Ca2+]i transients in control cells. Confocal microscopy indicated ATR-impaired propagation of the Ca2+ release signal to the cell center in association with loss of t-tubular structures. Myofilament function studies in skinned permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed altered Ca2+ sensitivity and force redevelopment in ATR, possibly due to hypophosphorylation of myosin-binding protein C and myosin light-chain protein 2a (immunoblot). Hypophosphorylation was related to multiple phosphorylation system abnormalities where protein kinase A regulatory subunits were downregulated, whereas autophosphorylation and expression of Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and protein phosphatase 1 activity were enhanced. Recovery of [Ca2+]i transients and cell shortening occurred in parallel after ATR cessation.

Conclusions—

Shortening of APD contributes to hypocontractility induced by 1-week ATR but accounts for it only partially. Additional contractility-suppressing mechanisms include ICaL current reduction, impaired subcellular Ca2+ signal transmission, and altered myofilament function associated with abnormal myosin and myosin-associated protein phosphorylation. The complex mechanistic basis of the atrial hypocontractility associated with AF argues for upstream therapeutic targeting rather than interventions directed toward specific downstream pathophysiological derangements.

  R Kaida , T Kaku , K Baba , M Oyadomari , T Watanabe , K Nishida , T Kanaya , Z Shani , O Shoseyov and T. Hayashi
 

In order to create trees in which cellulose, the most abundant component in biomass, can be enzymatically hydrolyzed highly for the production of bioethanol, we examined the saccharification of xylem from several transgenic poplars, each overexpressing either xyloglucanase, cellulase, xylanase, or galactanase. The level of cellulose degradation achieved by a cellulase preparation was markedly greater in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase and much greater in the xylems overexpressing xylanase and cellulase than in the xylem of the wild-type plant. Although a high degree of degradation occurred in all xylems at all loci, the crystalline region of the cellulose microfibrils was highly degraded in the xylem overexpressing xyloglucanase. Since the complex between microfibrils and xyloglucans could be one region that is particularly resistant to cellulose degradation, loosening xyloglucan could facilitate the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose in wood.

  Y Yamamoto , T Tanahashi , T Kawai , S Chikahisa , S Katsuura , K Nishida , S Teshima Kondo , H Sei and K. Rokutan
 

Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective method for prevention of age-associated diseases as well as overweight and obesity; however, there is controversy regarding the effects of dieting regimens on behavior. In this study, we investigated two different dieting regimens: repeated fasting and refeeding (RFR) and daily feeding of half the amount of food consumed by RFR mice (CR). CR and RFR mice had an approximate 20% reduction in food intake compared with control mice. Open field, light-dark transition, elevated plus maze, and forced swimming tests indicated that CR, but not RFR, reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, with a reduction peak on day 8. Using a mouse whole genome microarray, we analyzed gene expression in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus. In addition to the CR-responsive genes commonly modified by RFR and CR, each regimen differentially changed the expression of distinct genes in each region. The most profound change was observed in the amygdalas of CR mice: 884 genes were specifically upregulated. Ingenuity pathway analysis revealed that these 884 genes significantly modified nine canonical pathways in the amygdala. -Adrenergic and dopamine receptor signalings were the two top-scoring pathways. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed the upregulation of six genes in these pathways. Western blotting confirmed that CR specifically increased dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein (Darpp-32), a key regulator of dopamine receptor signaling, in the amygdala. Our results suggest that CR may change behavior through altered gene expression.

  K Takeo , T Kawai , K Nishida , K Masuda , S Teshima Kondo , T Tanahashi and K. Rokutan
 

The tra2β gene encoding an alternative splicing regulator, transformer 2-β (Tra2β), generates five alternative splice variant transcripts (tra2β15). Functionally active, full-length Tra2β is encoded by tra2β1 isoform. Expression and physiological significance of the other isoforms, particularly tra2β4, are not fully understood. Rat gastric mucosa constitutively expressed tra2β1 isoform and specifically generated tra2β4 isoform that includes premature termination codon-containing exon 2, when exposed to restraint and water immersion stress. Treatment of a gastric cancer cell line (AGS) with arsenite (100 µM) preferentially generated tra2β4 isoform and caused translocation of Tra2β from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in association with enhanced phosphorylation during the initial 4–6 h (acute phase). Following the acute phase, AGS cells continued upregulated tra2β1 mRNA expression, and higher amounts of Tra2β were reaccumulated in their nuclei. Treatment with small interference RNAs targeting up-frameshift-1 or transfection of a plasmid containing tra2β1 cDNA did not induce tra2β4 isoform expression and did not modify the arsenite-induced expression of this isoform, suggesting that neither the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay nor the autoregulatory control by excess amounts of Tra2β participated in the tra2β4 isoform generation. Knockdown of Tra2β facilitated skipping of the central variable region of the CD44 gene and suppressed cell growth. In contrast, overexpression of Tra2β stimulated combinatorial inclusion of multiple variable exons in the region and cell growth. The similar skipping and inclusion of the variable region were observed in arsenite-treated cells. Our results suggest that Tra2β may regulate cellular oxidative response by changing alternative splicing of distinct genes including CD44.

  K Nishida , A Hasegawa , S Nakae , K Oboki , H Saito , S Yamasaki and T. Hirano
 

Zinc (Zn) is an essential nutrient and its deficiency causes immunodeficiency. However, it remains unknown how Zn homeostasis is regulated in mast cells and if Zn transporters are involved in allergic reactions. We show that Znt5/Slc30a5 is required for contact hypersensitivity and mast cell–mediated delayed-type allergic response but not for immediate passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. In mast cells from Znt5–/– mice, Fc receptor I (FcRI)–induced cytokine production was diminished, but degranulation was intact. Znt5 was involved in FcRI-induced translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) to the plasma membrane and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor B. In addition, the Zn finger–like motif of PKC was required for its plasma membrane translocation and binding to diacylglycerol. Thus, Znt5 is selectively required for the mast cell–mediated delayed-type allergic response, and it is a novel player in mast cell activation.

 
 
 
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