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Articles by K Nakachi
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Nakachi
  K Yoshida , K Nakachi , K Imai , J. B Cologne , Y Niwa , Y Kusunoki and T. Hayashi
 

Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Prevention could be improved by identifying susceptible individuals as well as improving understanding of interactions between genes and etiological environmental agents, including radiation exposure. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-signaling pathway, regulating cellular radiation sensitivity, is an oncogenic cascade involved in lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. The cytosine adenine (CA) repeat number polymorphism in the first intron of EGFR has been shown to be inversely correlated with EGFR production. It is hypothesized that CA repeat number may modulate individual susceptibility to lung cancer. Thus, we carried out a case–cohort study within the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivor cohort to evaluate a possible association of CA repeat polymorphism with lung cancer risk in radiation-exposed or negligibly exposed (<5 mGy) A-bomb survivors. First, by dividing study subjects into Short and Long genotypes, defined as the summed CA repeat number of two alleles ≤37 and ≥38, respectively, we found that the Short genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of lung cancer, specifically adenocarcinoma, among negligibly exposed subjects. Next, we found that prior radiation exposure significantly enhanced lung cancer risk of survivors with the Long genotype, whereas the risk for the Short genotype did not show any significant increase with radiation dose, resulting in indistinguishable risks between these genotypes at a high radiation dose. Our findings imply that the EGFR pathway plays a crucial role in assessing individual susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma in relation to radiation exposure.

  S Iwasa , C Morizane , T Okusaka , H Ueno , M Ikeda , S Kondo , T Tanaka , K Nakachi , S Mitsunaga , Y Kojima , A Hagihara and N. Hiraoka
  Objective

The combination chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and etoposide, one of the standard regimens for small cell lung cancer, has been widely used to treat extrapulmonary poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas. However, there were no prior reports limited to the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas as the primary sites.

Methods

We reviewed the cases in our database from October 1995 to January 2009 and retrospectively examined the clinical data of patients, with unresectable or recurrent poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma arising from the hepatobiliary tract and pancreas, who received combination chemotherapy with cisplatin and etoposide as the first-line treatment. The chemotherapy regimen consisted of cisplatin 80 mg/m2 given intravenously on day 1 and etoposide 100 mg/m2 intravenously on days 1–3, repeated every 3–4 weeks.

Results

Twenty-one patients were treated with the above regimen of cisplatin and etoposide combination chemotherapy. The primary tumor site was the liver in 2 patients, gallbladder in 8 patients, pancreas in 10 patients and ampulla of Vater in 1 patient. Although no complete responses were obtained, three patients had partial responses, resulting in an overall response rate of 14%. Median progression-free survival was 1.8 months, and median overall survival was 5.8 months. The major adverse events were myelosuppression and gastrointestinal toxicities, with Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (90%), nausea (33%) and anorexia (24%).

Conclusions

Cisplatin and etoposide combination as the first-line chemotherapy for hepatobiliary or pancreatic poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma had only marginal antitumor activity and relatively severe toxicity compared with previous studies on extrapulmonary poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinoma treated with the same regimen.

 
 
 
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