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Articles by K Li
Total Records ( 6 ) for K Li
  W Yao , K Li and K. Liao

The key event in the atherosclerosis development is the lipids uptake by macrophage and the formation of foam cell in subendothelial arterial space. Besides the uptake of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL) by scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis, macrophages possess constitutive macropinocytosis, which is capable of taking up a large quantity of solute. Macrophage foam cell formation could be induced in RAW264.7 cells by increasing the serum concentration in the culture medium. Foam cell formation induced by serum could be blocked by phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor, LY294002 or wortmannin, which inhibited macropinocytosis but not receptor-mediated endocytosis. Further analysis indicated that macropinocytosis took place at the gangliosides-enriched membrane area. Cholesterol depletion by β-methylcyclodextrin-blocked macropinocytosis without affecting scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis of modified LDLs. These results suggested that macropinocytosis might be one of the important mechanisms for lipid uptake in macrophage. And it made significant contribution to the lipid accumulation and foam cell formation.

  K Shannon , T Kerr , B Marshall , K Li , R Zhang , S. A Strathdee , M. W Tyndall , J. G. S Montaner and E. Wood

Objective  To examine whether there were differential rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) incidence in injecting drug–using youths who did and did not report involvement in survival sex work.

Design  Data were derived from 2 prospective cohort studies of injecting drug users (May 1, 1996, to July 31, 2007). Analyses were restricted to HCV antibody–negative youths who completed baseline and at least 1 follow-up assessment.

Setting  Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Participants  Of 3074 injecting drug users, 364 (11.8%) were youths (aged 14-24 years) with a median age of 21.3 years and a duration of injecting drug use of 3 years.

Main Exposure  Survival sex work involvement.

Main Outcome Measure  The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare HCV incidence among youths who did and did not report survival sex work.

Results  Baseline HCV prevalence was 51%, with youths involved in survival sex work significantly more likely to be HCV antibody positive (60% vs 44%; P = .002). In baseline HCV antibody–negative youths, the cumulative HCV incidence at 36 months was significantly higher in those involved in survival sex work (68.4% vs 38.8%; P < .001). The HCV incidence density was 36.8 (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.2-53.5) per 100 person-years in youths reporting survival sex work involvement at baseline compared with 14.1 (9.4-20.3) per 100 person-years in youths not reporting survival sex work. In multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses, survival sex work was the strongest predictor of elevated HCV incidence (adjusted relative hazard, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.27-4.15).

Conclusion  This study calls attention to the critical need for evidence-based social and structural HCV prevention efforts that target youths engaged in survival sex work.

  L Wang , C Yu , H Chen , W Qin , Y He , F Fan , Y Zhang , M Wang , K Li , Y Zang , T. S Woodward and C. Zhu

Numerous studies argue that cortical reorganization may contribute to the restoration of motor function following stroke. However, the evolution of changes during the post-stroke reorganization has been little studied. This study sought to identify dynamic changes in the functional organization, particularly topological characteristics, of the motor execution network during the stroke recovery process. Ten patients (nine male and one female) with subcortical infarctions were assessed by neurological examination and scanned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging across five consecutive time points in a single year. The motor execution network of each subject was constructed using a functional connectivity matrix between 21 brain regions and subsequently analysed using graph theoretical approaches. Dynamic changes in topological configuration of the network during the process of recovery were evaluated by a mixed model. We found that the motor execution network gradually shifted towards a random mode during the recovery process, which suggests that a less optimized reorganization is involved in regaining function in the affected limbs. Significantly increased regional centralities within the network were observed in the ipsilesional primary motor area and contralesional cerebellum, whereas the ipsilesional cerebellum showed decreased regional centrality. Functional connectivity to these brain regions demonstrated consistent alterations over time. Notably, these measures correlated with different clinical variables, which provided support that the findings may reflect the adaptive reorganization of the motor execution network in stroke patients. In conclusion, the study expands our understanding of the spectrum of changes occurring in the brain after stroke and provides a new avenue for investigating lesion-induced network plasticity.

  T Wu , L Wang , M Hallett , K Li and P. Chan

Patients with Parkinson’s disease have great difficulty in performing bimanual movements; this problem is more obvious when they perform bimanual anti-phase movements. The underlying mechanism of this problem remains unclear. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study the bimanual coordination associated changes of brain activity and inter-regional interactions in Parkinson’s disease. Subjects were asked to perform right-handed, bimanual in-phase and bimanual anti-phase movements. After practice, normal subjects performed all tasks correctly. Patients with Parkinson’s disease performed in-phase movements correctly. However, some patients still made infrequent errors during anti-phase movements; they tended to revert to in-phase movement. Functional magnetic resonance imaging results showed that the supplementary motor area was more activated during anti-phase movement than in-phase movement in controls, but not in patients. In performing anti-phase movements, patients with Parkinson’s disease showed less activity in the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area, and had more activation in the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus and cerebellum compared with normal subjects. The basal ganglia and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were less connected with the supplementary motor area, whereas the primary motor cortex, parietal cortex, precuneus and cerebellum were more strongly connected with the supplementary motor area in patients with Parkinson’s disease than in controls. Our findings suggest that dysfunction of the supplementary motor area and basal ganglia, abnormal interactions of brain networks and disrupted attentional networks are probably important reasons contributing to the difficulty of the patients in performing bimanual anti-phase movements. The patients require more brain activity and stronger connectivity in some brain regions to compensate for dysfunction of the supplementary motor area and basal ganglia in order to perform bimanual movements correctly.

  C Zhang , C Wang , X Chen , C Yang , K Li , J Wang , J Dai , Z Hu , X Zhou , L Chen , Y Zhang , Y Li , H Qiu , J Xing , Z Liang , B Ren , K Zen and C. Y. Zhang

Sensitive and specific biomarkers for the early detection of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are urgently needed to reduce the high morbidity and mortality of the disease. The discovery of serum microRNAs (miRNAs) and their unique concentration profiles in patients with various diseases makes them attractive, novel noninvasive biomarkers for tumor diagnosis. In this study, we investigated the serum miRNA profile in ESCC patients to develop a novel diagnostic ESCC biomarker.


Serum samples were taken from 290 ESCC patients and 140 age- and sex-matched controls. Solexa sequencing technology was used for an initial screen of miRNAs in serum samples from 141 patients and 40 controls. A hydrolysis probe–based stem–loop quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) assay was conducted in the training and verification phases to confirm the concentrations of selected miRNAs in serum samples from 149 patients and 100 controls.


The Solexa sequencing results demonstrated marked upregulation of 25 serum miRNAs in ESCC patients compared with controls. RT-qPCR analysis identified a profile of 7 serum miRNAs (miR-10a, miR-22, miR-100, miR-148b, miR-223, miR-133a, and miR-127-3p) as ESCC biomarkers. The area under the ROC curve for the selected miRNAs ranged from 0.817 to 0.949, significantly higher than for carcinoembryonic antigen (0.549; P < 0.0005). More importantly, this panel of 7 miRNAs clearly distinguished stage I/II ESCC patients from controls.


This panel of 7 serum miRNAs holds promise as a novel blood-based biomarker for the diagnosis of ESCC.

  Z Huang , M Chen , K Li , X Dong , J Han and Q. Zhang

Cryo-electron tomography was employed to reconstruct the structure of Chlamydia trachomatis. Results revealed that the features of the structures, especially those of the membranes, were preserved much better than those by conventional ultrathin section methods. This method also enabled us to determine that the thickness of the outer membrane of the elementary bodies is nearly twice of that of the reticulate bodies. Our observations give a clue to the mechanism of outer membrane changes.

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