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Articles by K Inouye
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Inouye
  K Nohara , T Suzuki , K Ao , H Murai , Y Miyamoto , K Inouye , X Pan , H Motohashi , Y Fujii Kuriyama , M Yamamoto and C. Tohyama
 

The ligand-dependent transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in various immune functions. Our previous studies have shown that AhR activation by exposure of ovalbumin (OVA)-immunized mice to the potent ligand 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) increases immunization-induced IFN- production in the spleen and suppresses the production of Th2 cytokines and OVA-specific antibodies. In the present study, we used transgenic (Tg) mice that express a constitutively active mutant of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (CA-AhR) specifically in T-lineage cells to clarify the role of AhR activation in T cells in these reactions. The results of this study clearly demonstrated that AhR activation only in the T cells augments IFN- production upon OVA immunization. By contrast, production of Th2 cytokines and antibodies were not significantly suppressed by CA-AhR in the T cells. These results suggest that suppression of Th2 cytokines and antibodies production require AhR activation not only in T cells but also in other cell types as caused by TCDD exposure. Alternatively, these results may indicate that IFN- augmentation and Th2 cytokines and antibodies suppression depend on different ways of functions of AhR in the T cells and that CA-AhR does not replicate the suppressive effect of TCDD-activated AhR on Th2 cytokines and antibodies. Expression of CA-AhR in the T cells was also shown to increase the percentage of CD25+ cells among CD4+ cells in the thymus and spleen. Thus, studies using T-cell-specific CA-AhR Tg mice provide a way to dissect the role of AhR in individual cell types and how the AhR functions.

  K Inouye , M Yasumoto , S Tsuzuki , S Mochida and T. Fushiki
 

Matriptase is a transmembrane serine protease that is strongly expressed in epithelial cells. The single-chain zymogen of matriptase is considered to have inherent activity, leading to its own activation (i.e. conversion to the disulphide-linked-two-chain form by cleavage after Thr–Lys–Gln–Ala–Arg614). Also, there is growing evidence that the activation of zymogen occurs at the cell surface and in relation to the acidification and lowering of ionic strength within cell-surface microenvironments. The present study aimed to provide evidence for the involvement of zymogen activity in its activation in physiologically relevant cellular contexts. For this purpose, the activity of a pseudozymogen form of recombinant matriptase (HL-matriptase zymogen) was examined using acetyl-l-Lys–l-Thr–l-Lys–l-Gln–l-Leu–l-Arg–4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide as a substrate. HL-matriptase zymogen exhibited optimal activity toward the substrate pH ~6.0. The substrate hydrolysis at the pH value was hardly detected when NaCl was present at a concentration of 145 mM. In a buffer of pH 6.0 containing 5 mM NaCl, the activity of HL-matriptase zymogen was only ~30-times lower than that of the respective two-chain form. These findings suggest that the in vivo activation of matriptase zymogen occurs via a mechanism involving the zymogen activity.

  S Mochida , S Tsuzuki , K Inouye and T. Fushiki
 

Matriptase is a type-II transmembrane serine protease that is expressed strongly in the epithelial elements of various organs. In the small intestine, it is expressed prominently at the villus tip where aged epithelial cells undergo shedding and/or apoptosis. This observation, together with the ability of matriptase to cleave laminin (a basement membrane component critical for epithelial cell attachment), prompted us to hypothesize that it plays an important part in the removal of aged epithelial cells in the small intestine. We tested this hypothesis by determining whether a recombinant catalytic domain of rat matriptase (His6t-S-CD) causes detachment and/or apoptosis of small-intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells. His6t-S-CD caused detachment of cells attached to laminin-coated plates but did not detach cells attached to fibronectin- or type-IV collagen-coated plates. Pre-treatment of laminin-coated plates with His6t-S-CD decreased the attachment of cells, suggesting that the recombinant matriptase caused detachment through a mechanism involving a direct effect on laminin. His6t-S-CD was also found to induce apoptosis in the cells cultured on laminin-coated plates, as assessed by annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation and caspase-3 activity assays. These findings support our hypothesis regarding the role of matriptase in the small intestine.

 
 
 
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