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Articles by K Iida
Total Records ( 2 ) for K Iida
  Y Nishimori , K Iida , M Furusawa , Y Tang , K Tokuyama , S Nagai and Y. Nishiyama
 

Nishimori, Y., Iida, K., Furusawa, M., Tang, Y., Tokuyama, K., Nagai, S., and Nishiyama, Y. 2009. The development and evaluation of a three-dimensional, echo-integration method for estimating fish-school abundance. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1037–1042.

A three-dimensional, echo-integration method (3DEI) which uses scanning-sonar observations of a fish school to estimate its backscattering cross section (bss = Nbs) was developed. Coupled with a modelled estimate of the average backscattering cross section of individual fish (bs), the 3DEI theoretically allows estimation of the number of fish in a school (N). To test the practicality of the method, measurements were made of a metal sphere simulating fish, and several spheres simulating a fish school. The 3DEI correctly measured the bss of each target. Next, the 3DEI was applied to echo data from a herring school in the Norwegian Sea, to estimate its bss. Several values of bs were estimated with a prolate-spheroid model, each assuming different distributions of fish orientations relative to the sonar beam. Dividing the 3DEI-estimated bss by these modelled bs shows that the resulting estimates of N were closer to the skipper's estimate than those estimated using the apparent school volume. The 3DEI measurements of bss, modelled bs, and resulting accuracy of N depend largely on the assumed orientations of the fish relative to the acoustic beam.

  K Iida , J Mimura , K Itoh , C Ohyama , Y Fujii Kuriyama , T Shimazui , H Akaza and M. Yamamoto
 

Down-regulation of carcinogen detoxifying enzymes might be a critical factor in tumour formation by increasing the carcinogen concentration in the target organ. Previous reports revealed that the expression of UGT1A mRNA is either lost or decreased in certain human cancer tissues, including urinary bladder cancer. To elucidate this down-regulation mechanism, we used an N-nitrosobutyl (4-hydroxybutyl) amine (BBN)-induced mouse urinary bladder carcinogenesis model. Similar to human cancer, the expressions of Ugt1a6, Ugt1a9 and total Ugt1a mRNA in the BBN-induced bladder cancer were markedly decreased compared with those of normal mice. BBN down-regulated the basal Ugt1a mRNA expression in a time-dependent manner and this was reversible in the first 2 weeks of BBN treatment. However, after 4 weeks of BBN treatment the repression became persistent after the cessation of BBN treatment. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) regulates the constitutive and inducible expression of Ugt1a mRNA. We found that the constitutive Ugt1a mRNA expression is decreased in the bladder of AhR knockout (KO) mice. Furthermore, BBN-induced Ugt1a down-regulation was lost in AhR KO mice, and the canonical AhR target gene Cyp1a1 was similarly down-regulated by BBN in the bladder. These results demonstrate that BBN repressed Ugt1a mRNA expression via suppression of AhR signaling pathway during BBN-induced carcinogenesis.

 
 
 
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