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Articles by K Howard
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Howard
  L Frank , K Howard , R Jones , L Lacey , C Leibman , A Lleo , S Mannix , L Mucha , T McLaughlin and S. Zarit
 

Background: The Dependence Scale (DS) was designed to assess levels of patient need for care due to deficits typical of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). This study examined content validity of the DS based on input from patients, caregivers, and clinicians. Methods: Qualitative interviews with experts, patients, and caregivers were used to collect information on the concept of dependence and to assess content validity. Results: Nine clinicians rated item relevance ‘‘high’’ with consensus on the primacy of functional abilities and dependence in the measurement of AD progression. Twenty-two US, 11 UK, and 14 informal caregivers from Spain participated in focus groups; 18 patients participated in 3 separate focus groups. Discussion supported DS hierarchy of dependence, capture of mild-to-severe dependence, suitability of response options, and short recall time frame. Conclusions: Clinicians, caregivers, and patients support content validity of the DS in mild-to-moderate AD. The DS may be valuable to capture dependence within future clinical dementia trials.

  K Howard , A Barratt , G. J Mann and M. I. Patel
 

Background  Information is needed to aid individual decision making about prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening.

Methods  We aimed to provide such information for men aged 40, 50, 60, and 70 years at low, moderate, and high risk for prostate cancer. A Markov model compared patients with vs without annual PSA screening using a 20% relative risk (RR) reduction (RR = 0.8) in prostate cancer mortality as a best-case scenario. The model estimated numbers of biopsies, prostate cancers, and deaths from prostate cancer per 1000 men over 10 years and cumulated to age 85 years.

Results  Benefits and harms vary substantially with age and familial risk. Using 60-year-old men with low risk as an example, of 1000 men screened annually, we estimate that 115 men will undergo biopsy triggered by an abnormal PSA screen result and that 53 men will be diagnosed as having prostate cancer over 10 years compared with 23 men diagnosed as having prostate cancer among 1000 unscreened men. Among screened men, 3.5 will die of prostate cancer over 10 years compared with 4.4 deaths in unscreened men. For 1000 men screened from 40 to 69 years of age, there will be 27.9 prostate cancer deaths and 639.5 deaths overall by age 85 years compared with 29.9 prostate cancer deaths and 640.4 deaths overall in unscreened men. Higher-risk men have more prostate cancer deaths averted but also more prostate cancers diagnosed and related harms.

Conclusions  Men should be informed of the likely benefits and harms of PSA screening. These estimates can be used to support individual decision making.

  R. L Morton , K Howard , A. C Webster , G Wong and J. C. Craig
 

Background. Induction immunosuppression is perceived as an expensive therapy, so is often given only to select patients. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of antibody induction comparing interleukin-2 receptor antagonists (IL2Ra) to standard therapy with no induction or induction with polyclonal antibodies.

Methods. A Markov model was developed to estimate costs and health outcomes [survival (life years saved, LYS) and quality-adjusted survival (QALYs)] for the alternative strategies. Outcome data were obtained from a meta-analysis of randomized trials and large-scale renal registries.

Results. IL2Ra offers improved survival of 0.21 LYS (2.5 months) and 1.42 QALYs compared with no induction, with a cost saving over 20 years of $79 302 per patient treated regardless of risk profile. The incremental benefits of IL2Ra compared with polyclonal antibody induction therapy were 0.35 LYS (4.3 months) and 0.20 QALYs, with an incremental cost of $5144 per patient. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of IL2Ra compared to polyclonal induction was $14 803 per LYS and $25 928 per QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that IL2Ra remained more effective and less expensive than no induction. When IL2Ra was compared to polyclonal induction, the model was sensitive to changes in the cost of induction and the probability of malignancy. Over the range of all other variables tested, IL2Ra was cost-effective compared to polyclonal induction.

Conclusions. Adopting IL2Ra as induction immunosuppression for kidney transplant recipients improves survival and QALYs and is less costly than no induction. It also represents good value for money compared to polyclonal induction.

 
 
 
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