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Articles by K Ghosh
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Ghosh
  K Ghosh , S Shetty and M. Tulsiani
 

Prenatal diagnostic techniques in hemophilia have evolved through the early sex-determination techniques of offering a nonspecific diagnosis in case of a male fetus through the various mutation screening techniques to the more recent gene array techniques. Each of these techniques has specific advantages and disadvantages. The sampling techniques have evolved simultaneously to suit the requirements of each technique and also the different gestation periods. The DNA-based testing methods provide a range of aberrations detected with different levels of genomic resolution. The more recent gene array analysis is poised to have substantial impact on prenatal diagnosis of hemophilia not only in studying the highly heterogeneous mutations but may also be useful in studying the effect of various ameliorating or epistatic genetic mutations/ polymorphisms simultaneously, providing a wide range of options to the prenatal diagnosis experts, the genetic counselors, and the couples opting for prenatal diagnosis.

  K Ghosh , C. M Vachon , V. S Pankratz , R. A Vierkant , S. S Anderson , K. R Brandt , D. W Visscher , C Reynolds , M. H Frost and L. C. Hartmann
  Background

Lobular involution, or age-related atrophy of breast lobules, is inversely associated with breast cancer risk, and mammographic breast density (MBD) is positively associated with breast cancer risk.

Methods

To evaluate whether lobular involution and MBD are independently associated with breast cancer risk in women with benign breast disease, we performed a nested cohort study among women (n = 2666) with benign breast disease diagnosed at Mayo Clinic between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 1991 and a mammogram available within 6 months of the diagnosis. Women were followed up for an average of 13.3 years to document any breast cancer incidence. Lobular involution was categorized as none, partial, or complete; parenchymal pattern was classified using the Wolfe classification as N1 (nondense), P1, P2 (ductal prominence occupying <25%, or >25% of the breast, respectively), or DY (extremely dense). Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess associations of lobular involution and MBD with breast cancer risk were estimated using adjusted Cox proportional hazards model. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided.

Results

After adjustment for MBD, having no or partial lobular involution was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution (none: HR of breast cancer incidence = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.94; partial: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.53; Ptrend = .002). Similarly, after adjustment for involution, having dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having nondense breasts (for DY: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.03 to 2.73; for P2: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.20 to 3.21; for P1: HR of breast cancer incidence = 1.23, 95% CI = 0.67 to 2.26; Ptrend = .02). Having a combination of no involution and dense breasts was associated with higher risk of breast cancer than having complete involution and nondense breasts (HR of breast cancer incidence = 4.08, 95% CI = 1.72 to 9.68; P = .006).

Conclusion

Lobular involution and MBD are independently associated with breast cancer incidence; combined, they are associated with an even greater risk for breast cancer.

  S Gangodkar , P Jain , N Dixit , K Ghosh and A. Basu
 

The biogenesis events and formation of dengue virus (DENV) in the infected host cells remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we examined the ultrastructural changes associated with DENV-2 replication in three susceptible host cells, C6/36, Vero and SK Hep1, a cell line of human endothelial origin, using transmission electron microscopy, whole-mount grid-cell culture techniques and electron tomography (ET). The prominent feature in C6/36 cells was the formation of large perinuclear vacuoles with mature DENV particles, and on-grid whole-mount examination of the infected Vero cells showed different forms of DENV core structures associated with cellular membranes within 48 h after infection. Distinct multivesicular structures and prominent autophagic vesicles were seen in the infected SK Hep1 cells when compared with the other two cell lines. ET showed the three-dimensional organization of these vesicles as a continuous system. This is the first report of ET-based analysis of DENV-2 replication in a human endothelial cell line. These results further emphasizes the strong role played by intracellular host membranes–virus interactions in the biogenesis of DENV and strongly argues for the possibility of targeting compounds to block such structure formation as key anti-dengue agents.

 
 
 
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