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Articles by K Chang
Total Records ( 5 ) for K Chang
  K Chang , D Xiao , X Huang , L. D Longo and L. Zhang

Chronic hypoxia during pregnancy has profound effects on uterine artery (UA) contractility and attenuates uterine blood flow. The present study tested the hypothesis that chronic hypoxia inhibits the pregnancy-induced reduction in pressure-dependent myogenic tone of resistance-sized UAs. UAs were isolated from nonpregnant ewes (NPUAs) and near-term pregnant ewes (PUAs) that had been maintained at sea level (~300 m) or at high altitude (3,801 m) for 110 days. In normoxic animals, the pressure-dependent myogenic response was significantly attenuated in PUAs compared with NPUAs. Hypoxia significantly increased myogenic tone in PUAs and abolished its difference between PUAs and NPUAs. Consistently, there was a significant increase in PKC-mediated baseline Ca2+ sensitivity of PUAs in hypoxic animals. Hypoxia significantly increased phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu)-induced contractions in PUAs but not in NPUAs. Whereas the inhibition of ERK1/2 by PD-98059 potentiated PDBu-mediated contractions of PUAs in normoxic animals, it failed to do so in hypoxic animals. Hypoxia decreased ERK1/2 expression in PUAs. PDBu induced membrane translocation of PKC- and PKC-. Whereas there were no significant differences in PKC- translocation among all groups, the translocation of PKC- was significantly enhanced in NPUAs compared with PUAs in normoxic animals, and hypoxia significantly increased PKC- translocation in PUAs. In the presence of PD-98059, there were no significant differences in PDBu-induced PKC- translocation among all groups. Treatment of PUAs isolated from normoxic animals with 10.5% O2 for 48 h ex vivo significantly increased PDBu-induced contractions and eliminated its difference between PUAs and NPUAs. The results suggest that hypoxia upregulates pressure-dependent myogenic tone through its direct effect in suppressing ERK1/2 activity and increasing the PKC signal pathway, leading to an increase in the Ca2+ sensitivity of the myogenic mechanism in the UA during pregnancy.

  Y Erlich , K Chang , A Gordon , R Ronen , O Navon , M Rooks and G. J. Hannon

Next-generation sequencers have sufficient power to analyze simultaneously DNAs from many different specimens, a practice known as multiplexing. Such schemes rely on the ability to associate each sequence read with the specimen from which it was derived. The current practice of appending molecular barcodes prior to pooling is practical for parallel analysis of up to many dozen samples. Here, we report a strategy that permits simultaneous analysis of tens of thousands of specimens. Our approach relies on the use of combinatorial pooling strategies in which pools rather than individual specimens are assigned barcodes. Thus, the identity of each specimen is encoded within the pooling pattern rather than by its association with a particular sequence tag. Decoding the pattern allows the sequence of an original specimen to be inferred with high confidence. We verified the ability of our encoding and decoding strategies to accurately report the sequence of individual samples within a large number of mixed specimens in two ways. First, we simulated data both from a clone library and from a human population in which a sequence variant associated with cystic fibrosis was present. Second, we actually pooled, sequenced, and decoded identities within two sets of 40,000 bacterial clones comprising approximately 20,000 different artificial microRNAs targeting Arabidopsis or human genes. We achieved greater than 97% accuracy in these trials. The strategies reported here can be applied to a wide variety of biological problems, including the determination of genotypic variation within large populations of individuals.

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