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Articles by K Blennow
Total Records ( 3 ) for K Blennow
  U Berggren , C Fahlke , K. J Berglund , K Blennow , H Zetterberg and J. Balldin

Aims: In several studies, possible risk factors/predictors for severe alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), i.e. delirium tremens (DT) and/or seizures, have been investigated. We have recently observed that low blood platelet count could be such a risk factor/predictor. We therefore investigated whether such an association could be found using a large number of alcohol-dependent individuals (n = 334). Methods: This study is a retrospectively conducted cohort study based on data from female and male patients (>20 years of age), consecutively admitted to an alcohol treatment unit. The individuals had to fulfil the discharge diagnoses alcohol dependence and alcohol withdrawal syndrome according to DSM-IV. Results: During the treatment period, 3% of the patients developed DT, 2% seizures and none had co-occurrence of both conditions. Among those with DT, a higher proportion had thrombocytopenia. Those with seizures had lower blood platelet count and a higher proportion of them had thrombocytopenia. The sensitivity and specificity of thrombocytopenia for the development of DT during the treatment period was 70% and 69%, respectively. The positive predictive value (PPV) was 6% and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 99%. For the development of seizures, the figure for sensitivity was 75% and for specificity 69%. The figures for PPV and NPV were similar as those for the development of DT. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia is more frequent in patients who develop severe AWS (DT or seizures). The findings, including the high NPV of thrombocytopenia, must be interpreted with caution due to the small number of patients who developed AWS. Further studies replicating the present finding are therefore needed before the clinical usefulness can be considered.

  U Berggren , C Fahlke , K. J Berglund , K Wadell , H Zetterberg , K Blennow , D Thelle and J. Balldin

Aims: Because the TAQ1 A1 allele may be associated with alcohol-related medical illnesses, and medical illnesses in alcohol-dependent individuals are associated with increased mortality, we test the hypothesis that the TAQ1 A1 allele of the DRD2 gene is associated with increased mortality in alcohol-dependent individuals. Methods: Following an index treatment episode, a 10-year follow-up study in 366 alcohol-dependent individuals was performed. The TAQ1 A1/A2 DRD2 genotype and allele frequencies were compared between those deceased and those still living at the 10-year point. In addition, the genotype and allele frequencies of these alcohol-dependent individuals were compared to that in 578 control subjects. Results: The prevalence of the A1 allele differed between the deceased and living patients and the controls: 47% of the deceased were A1+, compared to 37% of the living patients and 32% of the controls. The frequency of the TAQ1 A1/A2 genotype also differed between the groups. Thus, 43% had the A1/A2 genotype in comparison with 32% in the living patients and 29% in the controls. The TAQ 1 A1 allele frequency differed between the groups. The frequency of A1 allele was 25% in the deceased patients compared to 21% in the living patients and 17% in the controls. Conclusion: The TAQ I A1 allele of the DRD2 gene (or DRD2 gene region) was associated with increased mortality over a 10-year period in alcohol-dependent individuals.

  S Chalbot , H Zetterberg , K Blennow , T Fladby , I Grundke Iqbal and K. Iqbal

Background: The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) family comprises multiple isoenzymes that vary in their physicochemical properties, cellular localizations, calcium sensitivities, and substrate specificities. Despite these differences, PLA2s share the ability to catalyze the synthesis of the precursors of the proinflammatory mediators. To investigate the potential of PLA2 as a biomarker in screening neuroinflammatory disorders in both clinical and research settings, we developed a PLA2 assay and determined the predominant types of PLA2 activity in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF).

Methods: We used liposomes composed of a fluorescent probe (bis-Bodipy® FL C11-PC [1,2-bis-(4,4- difluoro-5,7-dimethyl-4-bora-3a,4a-diaza-s-indacene-3-undecanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine]) and 1,2-dioleoyl-l--phosphatidylcholine as a substrate to measure CSF PLA2 activity in a 96-well microtiter plate format. We established the type of CSF PLA2 activity using type-specific inhibitors of PLA2.

Results: Using 5 µL CSF per assay, our PLA2 activity assay was reproducible with CVs <15% in 2 CSF samples and for recombinant secretory Ca2+-dependent PLA2 (sPLA2) in concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 1 µmol/L. This PLA2 assay allowed identification of sPLA2 activity in lumbar CSF from healthy individuals 20–77 years old that did not depend on either sex or age. Additionally, CSF sPLA2 activity was found to be increased (P = 0.0008) in patients with Alzheimer disease.

Conclusions: Adult human CSF has sPLA2 activity that can be measured reliably with the assay described. This enzyme activity in the CSF is independent of both sex and age and might serve as a valuable biomarker of neuroinflammation, as we demonstrated in Alzheimer disease.

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