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Articles by K Abe
Total Records ( 5 ) for K Abe
  T Misawa , M Miyashita , M Kawa , K Abe , M Abe , Y Nakayama and C. W. Given

Background: The aim of this study was to validate the Caregiver Reaction Assessment (CRA) among caregivers of community-dwelling advanced cancer patients in Japan. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire was administered to advanced cancer patients and their caregivers who were cared for at day hospices and home palliative care services. We translated the CRA into Japanese, and then verified factor validity, reliability, construct validity, concurrent validity, and known groups’ validity. To address construct and concurrent validity, we calculated Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the Japanese version of the CRA and the Burden Index of Caregivers (BIC). To address known groups’ validity, we used the t test or analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: A total of 57 caregivers participated in the study. Five factors were extracted (‘‘impact on schedule,’’ ‘‘caregiver’s self-esteem,’’ ‘‘lack of family support,’’ ‘‘impact on health,’’ and ‘‘impact on finances’’) and reliability was good. Construct and concurrent validity among the subscales of the BIC were good. Regarding known groups validity, the subscale score of ‘‘impact on schedule’’ for the groups that cared 6 hours or more per day was higher than the other group (P = .04). Conclusion: The CRA-J is valid and reliable. This scale is useful for caregivers of cancer patients in Japan.

  I Nozaki , T Hamaguchi , N Sanjo , M Noguchi Shinohara , K Sakai , Y Nakamura , T Sato , T Kitamoto , H Mizusawa , F Moriwaka , Y Shiga , Y Kuroiwa , M Nishizawa , S Kuzuhara , T Inuzuka , M Takeda , S Kuroda , K Abe , H Murai , S Murayama , J Tateishi , I Takumi , S Shirabe , M Harada , A Sadakane and M. Yamada

We analysed the epidemiological data and clinical features of patients with prion diseases that had been registered by the Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Surveillance Committee, Japan, over the past 10 years, since 1999. We obtained information on 1685 Japanese patients suspected as having prion diseases and judged that 1222 patients had prion diseases, consisting of definite (n = 180, 14.7%) and probable (n = 1029, 84.2%) cases, except for dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease which also included possible cases (n = 13, 1.1%). They were classified into 922 (75.5%) with sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, 216 (17.7%) with genetic prion diseases, 81 (6.6%) with acquired prion diseases, including 80 cases of dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and one case of variant Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and three cases of unclassified Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (0.2%). The annual incidence rate of prion disease ranged from 0.65 in 1999 to 1.10 in 2006, with an average of 0.85, similar to European countries. Although methionine homozygosity at codon 129 polymorphism of the prion protein gene was reported to be very common (93%) in the general Japanese population, sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease in Japan was significantly associated with codon 129 homozygosity (97.5%), as reported in western countries. In sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, MM1 type (Parchi’s classification) is the most common, as in western countries. Among atypical sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases, the MM2 type appeared most common, probably related to the very high proportion of methionine allele in the Japanese population. As for iatrogenic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, only dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease cases were reported in Japan and, combined with the data from previous surveillance systems, the total number of dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease was 138, comprising the majority of worldwide dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease patients. Regarding genetic prion diseases, the most common mutation of prion protein gene was V180I (41.2%), followed by P102L (18.1%), E200K (17.1%) and M232R (15.3%), and this distribution was quite different from that in Europe. In particular, V180I and M232R were quite rare mutations worldwide. Patients with V180I or M232R mutations rarely had a family history of prion diseases, indicating that a genetic test for sporadic cases is necessary to distinguish these from sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. In conclusion, our prospective 10-year surveillance revealed a frequent occurrence of dura mater graft-associated Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease, and unique phenotypes of sporadic Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease and genetic prion diseases related to the characteristic distribution of prion protein gene mutations and polymorphisms in Japan, compared with those in western countries.

  J. K Horne , K Sawada , K Abe , R. B Kreisberg , D. H Barbee and K. Sadayasu

Horne, J. K., Sawada, K., Abe, K., Kreisberg, R. B., Barbee, D. H., and Sadayasu, K. 2009. Swimbladders under pressure: anatomical and acoustic responses by walleye pollock. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1162–1168.

Pressure influences echo intensities from fish through changes in swimbladder volumes and surface areas. Volume reduction is expected to correspond to Boyle’s law (volume pressure–1), but the effects of deforming the dorsal-aspect surface area of the swimbladder on the target strength (TS) of a physoclist have not been quantified at geometric scattering frequencies. Dorsal and lateral radiographs of three juvenile walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma) in a pressure chamber were used to image swimbladders from ambient to a maximum of 4.9 x 105 Pa (i.e. 5 atm). Radiographs from an additional 16 0-group, 21 juvenile, and 28 adult fish were used to compare swimbladder sizes and shapes across life-history stages. The directional elliptical eccentricity, which describes the relative compression in dorsal and lateral planes, was formulated to define swimbladder shapes and their variation. As pressure increased, dorsal-aspect surface areas of the swimbladder decreased at a constant rate. Swimbladder-volume reductions were similar among individuals, but less than those predicted by Boyle’s law. Compression was greatest in the dorsal–ventral plane and asymmetric anterior to posterior. The Kirchhoff-ray mode backscatter model predicted that TS at 38 and 120 kHz decreased by ~4 dB as pressure increased from ambient to 4.9 x 105 Pa.

  K Sawada , H Takahashi , K Abe , T Ichii , K Watanabe and Y. Takao

Sawada, K., Takahashi, H., Abe, K., Ichii, T., Watanabe, K., and Takao, Y. 2009. Target-strength, length, and tilt-angle measurements of Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) using an acoustic-optical system. – ICES Journal of Marine Science, 66: 1212–1218.

Pacific saury and Japanese anchovy generally congregate in dense groups or schools. An acoustic-optical system (the Japanese Quantitative Echosounder and Stereo-video Camera System or J-QUEST) has been developed to measure accurately the target strength (TS) of fish in a dense school. J-QUEST comprises a quantitative, 70 kHz, split-beam echosounder and a stereo-video camera. It was deployed from a research vessel to collect concomitant measures of TS and stereo images of in situ Pacific saury and Japanese anchovy. The stereo-video camera provides estimates of the fish lengths (L) and tilt-angles corrected for J-QUEST motion. In this way, empirical models of TS vs. log(L) were derived for Pacific saury and Japanese anchovy and compared with theory.

  K Abe , K Osakabe , Y Ishikawa , A Tagiri , H Yamanouchi , T Takyuu , T Yoshioka , T Ito , M Kobayashi , K Shinozaki , H Ichikawa and S. Toki

BRCA2 is a breast tumour susceptibility factor with functions in maintaining genome stability through ensuring efficient double-strand DNA break (DSB) repair via homologous recombination. Although best known in vertebrates, fungi, and higher plants also possess BRCA2-like genes. To investigate the role of Arabidopsis BRCA2 genes in DNA repair in somatic cells, transposon insertion mutants of the AtBRCA2a and AtBRCA2b genes were identified and characterized. atbrca2a-1 and atbrca2b-1 mutant plants showed hypersensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to wild-type plants. An atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant showed an additive increase in sensitivity to genotoxic stresses compared to each single mutant. In addition, it was found that atbrca2 mutant plants displayed fasciation and abnormal phyllotaxy phenotypes with low incidence, and that the ratio of plants exhibiting these phenotypes is increased by -irradiation. Interestingly, these phenotypes were also induced by -irradiation in wild-type plants. Moreover, it was found that shoot apical meristems of the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 double mutant show altered cell cycle progression. These data suggest that inefficient DSB repair in the atbrca2a-1/atbrca2b-1 mutant leads to disorganization of the programmed cell cycle of apical meristems.

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