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Articles by Jr.
Total Records ( 13 ) for Jr.
  F. Yan , C. A. Fritts , P. W. Waldroup , H. L. Stilborn , D. Rice , R. C. Crum , Jr. and V. Raboy
  Large White turkeys were fed diets containing either normal yellow dent corn (YDC) or a corn mutation containing low phytate phosphorus and high available phosphate corn (HAPC). Diets were considered nutritionally adequate in all respects with various degrees of reduction in available phosphorus content ( - 0.0, - 0.05, - 0.10 or - 0.15% of NRC (1994) recommendations for different feeding periods). These diets were fed with or without the addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase enzyme (Natuphos®, BASF), resulting in a total of 16 dietary treatments. Each treatment was assigned to three pens of 20 male turkeys from day-old to 20 wk of age. Body weight, feed consumption, and tibia ash were determined at 28 d intervals during the study. Male turkeys fed diets with HAPC did not differ significantly in BW or feed conversion (FC) from those fed diets with YDC, and had significantly higher tibia ash at 4, 8, and 12 wk of age. Addition of 1000 U/kg of phytase resulted in significantly higher BW at 4, 8, 12, and 16 wk of age as compared to unsupplemented controls with no significant differences in FC. The addition of phytase significantly improved tibia ash at every age. Dietary phosphorus content had no effect on BW or FC at any age. Reduction of phosphorus generally did not impair tibia ash until reduction of 0.15% below NRC (1994) recommendations. Addition of phytase aided in overcoming the reduction in phosphorus content. The combination of HAPC, addition of phytase, and reduction in dietary phosphorus content should aid in reducing phosphorus excretion without impairing performance.
  V. L. Christensen , D. T. Ort , S. Suvarna , W. J. Croom , Jr. and J. L. Grimes
  The hypothesis was proposed that eggshell conductance constants (k) alter embryonic intestinal development and affect growth post hatching. Egg weight (EW), eggshell conductance (G) and length of the incubation period (IP), the three components of the conductance constant were changed to determine their effect on intestinal physiology. Eggs were selected based on EW and G properties. Half of the selected eggs were incubated using a single stage temperature profile to shorten IP in each of two experiments. EW, G and IP interacted in the first experiment to affect intestinal growth and metabolism. In Experiment 2, k reduced intestinal weight in embryos as well as poults. EW and IP affected the size and maturity of intestinal tissue at the time of hatching. Differences in EW, G and IP observed at hatching were shown to affect the growth of poults for the first week following hatching. Thus, k may act to reduce growth in poults by affecting intestinal maturation. It is suggested that large eggs with low permeability may be at risk for weak poults. This may be especially true when they are exposed to shorter IP.
  J.K. Northcutt , D.R. Jones , K.D. Ingram , A. Hinton , Jr. and M.T. Musgrove
  Total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads in the air in three shell egg processing operations (in-line, off-line and mixed operations) were determined using MicroBio MB2 Air Samplers. Sites were sampled from each facility on three different days (replication) during the same week. Four air samples (1000 L each) were drawn from each sampling site on a given day. Sampling sites, included areas in or near the following on-site locations: hen house (in-line and mixed operations), farm transition room (in-line and mixed operations), egg washers, egg dryer, packer heads, post-processing cooler, nest-run cooler (off-line and mixed operations), loading dock and dry storage. Type of operation (in-line, off-line or mixed), sampling site and the interaction between operation and site had a significant effect on the number of total aerobic bacteria, molds/yeasts, coliforms and pseudomonads recovered (P < 0.05). Highest counts for total aerobic bacteria (5.9 log10 cfu/ml air), molds/yeasts (4.0 log10 cfu/ml air) and coliforms (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the hen house. Highest counts for pseudomonads were found in the hen house (3.2 log10 cfu/ml air) and behind the egg washer (3.5 log10 cfu/ml air). Lowest counts for total aerobic bacteria (2.5 log10 cfu/ml air) and molds/yeast (2.7 log10 cfu/ml air) were found in the post-processing cooler. Few samples in the post-processing coolers, nest-run coolers, loading docks and dry storage areas tested positive for coliforms (0/36, 2/24, 1/36 and 0/36, respectively) and pseudomonads (1/36, 2/24, 5/36 and 6/36, respectively). Data gathered during this study has been useful in identifying the sources and levels of airborne contaminates in commercial shell egg processing facilities.
  A. Hinton , Jr. , J.A. Cason , M.E. Hume and K.D. Ingram
  The presence of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses and in scald tank water in a commercial poultry processing facility was monitored at monthly intervals from July through December. The spread of the pathogen had previously been monitored in the same facility from January through June of the same year. Campylobacter were enumerated on prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled broiler carcasses; on processed carcasses stored at 4°C for 7 or 14 days, and in scald tank water samples. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of the Campylobacter isolates and the degree of relatedness between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using the MIDI Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Findings indicated that Campylobacter jejuni was present on carcasses and in scald tank water samples collected from July through December. Processing significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of Campylobacter recovered from broiler carcasses, however. Furthermore, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer C. jejuni were consistently recovered from the third tank of the multiple tank scald system than from the first tank. Findings indicated that poultry flocks may introduce several strains of C. jejuni into processing facilities. Additionally, different populations of the pathogen may be carried into the processing plant by successive broiler flocks, and some strains of C. jejuni may reappear in the same processing facility during different times of the year.
  A.C. Murry , Jr. , A. Hinton , Jr. and H. Morrison
  Two dominant strains of lactobacilli isolated from a botanical probiotic were identified and evaluated to determine their ability to inhibit the in vitro growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens on a medium that simulated a normal starter and grower diet for broiler chickens. The two strains identified were Lactobacillus salivarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. In the inhibition assay in vitro, both strains of Lactobacillus from the probiotic inhibited (P < 0.001) growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens for both the starter and grower diets when compared to the control diets. Both strains of Lactobacillus for both the starter and grower diets produced more (P < 0.001) acetic and lactic acid than was found in the control diets. Also, the pH of the media with cultures of L. plantarum and L. salivarius for both the starter and grower diets was lower (P < 0.001) than for the control diets. These results indicate that L. salivarius and L. plantarum contained in the botanical probiotic can ferment carbohydrates in poultry feed to produce pH levels and concentrations of lactic and acetic acid that inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. typhimurium, and C. perfringens.
  J.A. Cason , R.J. Buhr , A. Hinton , Jr. , M.E. Berrang and N.A. Cox
  Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.
  W.J. Croom , Jr. , J. Decubellis , B.A. Coles , L.R. Daniel and V.L. Christensen
  Previous studies in this laboratory have demonstrated that peptide YY (PYY) administration to turkey poults at d25 of incubation enhances intestinal Na-dependent active glucose uptake. This study was designed to further characterize the ontogeny of glucose transport in embryonic and hatchling poults and to investigate the effects of PYY on this process during development. In Trial 1, 20 turkey eggs were randomly selected at days 20, 23, and 26 of incubation, as well as the day of hatch. Hatchlings were cervically dislocated and the body weight, jejunal length and jejunal weight were recorded. Jejunal glucose uptake was estimated by measuring 3H-3-O-methyl-D-glucose accumulation in 2 mm jejunal rings in vitro. Jejunal O2 consumption was measured in vitro on jejunal rings using an O2 probe. In Trial 2, 40 turkey eggs were randomly selected at days 20, 23 and 25 of incubation and injected, via the air sac, with either 0.9% saline or 0.9 % saline plus 400 μg PYY/kg egg weight. Embryos from each treatment were harvested on days 23, 26 and day of hatch. Measurements and analyses on jejunal tissue were conducted as in Trial 1. In Trial 2, embryonic weight and jejunal weight adjusted for body weight increased (p< 0.05) with stage of incubation, while adjusted jejunal length decreased (p< 0.01). Active and total glucose uptake and jejunal O2 consumption increased with age (p< 0.05). The energetic efficiency of glucose uptake increased (p< 0.05) between d26 and hatch. In Trial 2, PYY failed to significantly affect body or jejunal weight, glucose absorption, and O2 consumption at any stage of development. PYY did however, decrease the efficiency of glucose uptake at d26 and at hatch (p< 0.05). In contrast to earlier investigations using higher dosages of PYY, this study demonstrated that in ovo PYY administration at 400 μg/kg egg weight has little effect of jejunal function in turkeys.
  A.C. Murry , Jr. , A. Hinton , Jr. and R.J. Buhr
  This study was conducted to examine the effect of feeding a botanical probiotic (Feed Free™) containing Lactobacillus on growth performance of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 d of age. At 56 d, five broilers per pen were killed and processed to determine bacteria populations in the ceca, cloaca, and carcass rinse. The dietary treatments were the basal diet with coccidiostat and antibiotic (control), basal diet without coccidiostat and antibiotic (negative control) and basal diet supplemented with 0.10% probiotic. The results showed that body weights and average weight gain were not different (P > 0.05) due to treatment. Feed intake and feed to gain ratio from 22 to 42 d of age were lower (P < 0.001) for broilers fed 0.10% probiotic than broilers fed the control diets. The population of Lactobacilli recovered from cloaca contents was higher (P < 0.002) and the population of Clostridium perfringens recovered from cloaca contents was lower (P < 0.02) for broilers fed the 0.10% probiotic diet than for those fed the control diets. The population C. jejuni recovered from carcass rinses for broilers fed the diet supplemented with the probiotic tended (P < 0.11) to be lower when compared to the negative control. These results suggest that diets supplemented with the botanical probiotic containing Lactobacillus supports growth for broilers similar to the basal diet supplemented with antibiotic and coccidiostat, and with lower feed to gain ratio. Also, the botanical probiotic may reduce C. perfringens and C. jejuni in market-age broilers.
  J.A. Cason , A. Hinton and Jr.
  Suspended bacteria were enumerated in scald water and carcass rinse samples from a commercial broiler chicken processing plant with a multiple-tank, counterflow scalder. Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter were enumerated and the Most Probable Number (MPN) of salmonellae was determined in water samples from each of three scald tanks, from a dip tank located between defeathering machines, and in rinses of carcasses removed from the processing line immediately after defeathering. Mean coliform concentrations in Tanks 1, 2, and 3 were 4.6, 2.5, and 1.6 log10(cfu/ml), respectively. E. coli concentrations followed the same pattern with means of 4.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in Tanks 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with significant differences (P< 0.05) in the concentrations of both coliforms and E. coli between tanks. Mean Campylobacter concentration in four positive samples from Tank 1 was 4.0 log10 (cfu/ml), but only one water sample from Tank 2 and none from Tank 3 were Campylobacter positive. Coliforms and E. coli were found in dip tank samples in only two instances, with no isolations of Campylobacter or salmonellae. Mean numbers of coliforms, E. coli, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were 3.1, 2.7, and 3.3 log10(cfu/ml). Salmonellae were isolated from five of six water samples from Tank 1 with a mean MPN of 13.3/100mL, but were isolated from only three of six water samples from Tank 2 and two of six from Tank 3. Salmonellae were isolated from half (18/36) of all carcass rinses. Most bacteria suspended in scald water were found in the first tank, with no Campylobacter or salmonellae found in the dip tank. Counterflow, multiple-tank scalders appear to reduce the opportunity for cross-contamination during scalding.
  Jing Li , L. Andy Chen , Courtney M. Townsend , Jr. and B. Mark Evers
  Neurotensin (NT) is a gut peptide that plays an important role in gastrointestinal secretion, motility, and growth as well as the proliferation of NT receptor-positive cancers. Protein kinase D (PKD) family members (PKD1, 2, and 3) have been identified as important regulators of secretory transport at the trans-Golgi network. Previously, we showed that PKD1 contributes to stimulated NT secretion; however, the mechanisms are not entirely clear. Here, we show that Kidins220, which is a substrate of PKD proteins in neuroendocrine cells, is localized in the ends of the processes of BON cells, similar to the expression pattern of NT vesicles, and translocates to the membrane and large vesicle-like structures formed in response to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment. The short hairpin RNA targeting Kidins220 inhibits NT secretion in parental BON cells or BON cells stably expressing the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor treated with either phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate or bombesin, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that endogenous PKD1, PKD2, and Kidins220 co-exist with NT-containing vesicles. Overexpression of the kinase-dead PKD1 abrogates Kidins220 expression and NT vesicle formation. Our data establish a physiological link between the PKD/Kidins220 pathway and NT-containing vesicles and suggest the role of this pathway in the regulation of hormone secretion. Because NT is an important gut hormone that affects secretion, inflammation, and both normal and tumor cell growth, our findings identify a novel signaling pathway that may be amenable to drug targeting for clinical applications.

  Liza J . Raggatt , Ling Qin , Joseph Tamasi , Stephen C. Jefcoat , Jr. , Emi Shimizu , Nagarajan Selvamurugan , Foo Y. Liew , Laura Bevelock , Jean H. M. Feyen and Nicola C. Partridge
  Interleukin-18 (IL-18) can regulate osteoblast and osteoclast function. We have identified, using cDNA microarray technology, that IL-18 expression is increased in UMR 106-01 rat osteoblastic cells in response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) treatment. Confirmation of these data using real-time reverse transcription-PCR showed that steady-state levels of IL-18 mRNA increased by 2 h (3-fold), peaked by 4 h (10-fold), and had diminished after 12 h (4.4-fold) and that this regulation was via the protein kinase A signaling pathway and did not involve activation of the PKC signal cascade. PTH regulation of IL-18 was confirmed at the protein level, and analysis of differentiating primary rat calvarial osteoblasts verified that both IL-18 mRNA and protein are regulated by PTH in primary rat osteoblasts. Promoter reporter assays revealed that PTH regulated the upstream IL-18 promoter and induced the exon 1 containing 1.1-kb IL-18 mRNA transcript in primary osteoblast cells. The in vivo physiological role of IL-18 in the anabolic actions of PTH on bone was then assessed using IL-18 knock-out mice. Female IL-18 null mice and wild-type littermate controls were injected with vehicle or 8 µg/100 g of human 1–38 PTH for 4 weeks. In IL-18 knock-out animals the anabolic effect of PTH (determined by bone mineral density changes in the proximal tibia) was abolished in trabecular bone but not in the cortical component. These data characterize the PTH regulation of IL-18 expression in osteoblastic cells and suggest that this cytokine is involved in the anabolic actions of PTH.
  Fred W. Perrino , Udesh de Silva , Scott Harvey , Edward E. Pryor , Daniel W. Cole , Thomas Hollis and Jr.
  The activity of human TREX2-catalyzed 3` → 5`-deoxyribonuclease has been analyzed in steady-state and single turnover kinetic assays and in equilibrium DNA binding studies. These kinetic data provide evidence for cooperative DNA binding within TREX2 and for coordinated catalysis between the TREX2 active sites supporting a model for communication between the protomers of a TREX2 dimer. Mobile loops positioned adjacent to the active sites provide the major DNA binding contribution and facilitate subsequent binding into the active sites. Mutations of three arginine residues on these loops cause decreased TREX2 activities by up to 60-fold. Steady-state kinetic assays of these arginine to alanine TREX2 variants result in increased Km values for DNA substrate with no effect on kcat values indicating contributions exclusively to DNA binding by all three of the loop arginines. TREX2 heterodimers were prepared to determine whether exonuclease activity in one protomer is communicated to the opposing protomer. Evidence for communication across the dimer interface is provided by the 7-fold lower catalytic activity measured in the TREX2WT/H188A heterodimer compared with the TREX2WT homodimer, contrasting the 2-fold lower activity measured in the TREX2WT/R163A,R165A,R167A heterodimer. The measured activity in TREX2WT/H188A heterodimer indicates that defective catalysis in one protomer reduces activity in the opposing protomer. A DNA binding analysis of TREX2 and the heterodimers indicates a cooperative binding effect within the TREX2 protomer. Finally, single turnover kinetic assays identify DNA binding as the rate-limiting step in TREX2 catalysis.
  Stefan M. Schieke , Mingchao Ma , Liu Cao , J. Philip McCoy , Jr. , Chengyu Liu , Nancy F. Hensel , A. John Barrett , Manfred Boehm and Toren Finkel
  Relatively little is known regarding the role of mitochondrial metabolism in stem cell biology. Here we demonstrate that mouse embryonic stem cells sorted for low and high resting mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨmL and ΔΨmH) are indistinguishable morphologically and by the expression of pluripotency markers, whereas markedly differing in metabolic rates. Interestingly, ΔΨmL cells are highly efficient at in vitro mesodermal differentiation yet fail to efficiently form teratomas in vivo, whereas ΔΨmH cells behave in the opposite fashion. We further demonstrate that ΔΨm reflects the degree of overall mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and that the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduces metabolic rate, augments differentiation, and inhibits tumor formation of the mouse embryonic stem cells with a high metabolic rate. Taken together, our results suggest a coupling between intrinsic metabolic parameters and stem cell fate that might form a basis for novel enrichment strategies and therapeutic options.
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