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Articles by Jonathan Carlson
Total Records ( 2 ) for Jonathan Carlson
  Zabrina L. Brumme , Chanson J. Brumme , Jonathan Carlson , Hendrik Streeck , Mina John , Quentin Eichbaum , Brian L. Block , Brett Baker , Carl Kadie , Martin Markowitz , Heiko Jessen , Anthony D. Kelleher , Eric Rosenberg , John Kaldor , Yuko Yuki , Mary Carrington , Todd M. Allen , Simon Mallal , Marcus Altfeld , David Heckerman and Bruce D. Walker
  During acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, early host cellular immune responses drive viral evolution. The rates and extent of these mutations, however, remain incompletely characterized. In a cohort of 98 individuals newly infected with HIV-1 subtype B, we longitudinally characterized the rates and extent of HLA-mediated escape and reversion in Gag, Pol, and Nef using a rational definition of HLA-attributable mutation based on the analysis of a large independent subtype B data set. We demonstrate rapid and dramatic HIV evolution in response to immune pressures that in general reflect established cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response hierarchies in early infection. On a population level, HLA-driven evolution was observed in ~80% of published CTL epitopes. Five of the 10 most rapidly evolving epitopes were restricted by protective HLA alleles (HLA-B*13/B*51/B*57/B*5801; P = 0.01), supporting the importance of a strong early CTL response in HIV control. Consistent with known fitness costs of escape, B*57-associated mutations in Gag were among the most rapidly reverting positions upon transmission to non-B*57-expressing individuals, whereas many other HLA-associated polymorphisms displayed slow or negligible reversion. Overall, an estimated minimum of 30% of observed substitutions in Gag/Pol and 60% in Nef were attributable to HLA-associated escape and reversion events. Results underscore the dominant role of immune pressures in driving early within-host HIV evolution. Dramatic differences in escape and reversion rates across codons, genes, and HLA restrictions are observed, highlighting the complexity of viral adaptation to the host immune response.
  Philippa C. Matthews , Andrew Prendergast , Alasdair Leslie , Hayley Crawford , Rebecca Payne , Christine Rousseau , Morgane Rolland , Isobella Honeyborne , Jonathan Carlson , Carl Kadie , Christian Brander , Karen Bishop , Nonkululeko Mlotshwa , James I . Mullins , Hoosen Coovadia , Thumbi Ndung’u , Bruce D. Walker , David Heckerman and Philip J . R. Goulder
  Much uncertainty still exists over what T-cell responses need to be induced by an effective human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Previous studies have hypothesized that the effective CD8+ T-cell responses are those driving the selection of escape mutations that reduce viral fitness and therefore revert posttransmission. In this study, we adopted a novel approach to define better the role of reverting escape mutations in immune control of HIV infection. This analysis of sequences from 710 study subjects with chronic C-clade HIV type 1 infection demonstrates the importance of mutations that impose a fitness cost in the control of viremia. Consistent with previous studies, the viral set points associated with each HLA-B allele are strongly correlated with the number of Gag-specific polymorphisms associated with the relevant HLA-B allele (r = –0.56, P = 0.0034). The viral set points associated with each HLA-C allele were also strongly correlated with the number of Pol-specific polymorphisms associated with the relevant HLA-C allele (r = –0.67, P = 0.0047). However, critically, both these correlations were dependent solely on the polymorphisms identified as reverting. Therefore, despite the inevitable evolution of viral escape, viremia can be controlled through the selection of mutations that are detrimental to viral fitness. The significance of these results is in highlighting the rationale for an HIV vaccine that can induce these broad responses.
 
 
 
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