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Articles by John F. Paolini
Total Records ( 3 ) for John F. Paolini
  Eseng Lai , M. Gerard Waters , James R. Tata , Waldemar Radziszewski , Inna Perevozskaya , Wei Zheng , Larissa Wenning , Daniel T. Connolly , Graeme Semple , Amy O. Johnson-Levonas , John A. Wagner , Yale Mitchel and John F. Paolini
 

Background

Development of niacin-like agents that favorably affect lipids with an improved flushing profile would be beneficial.

Objective

To evaluate a niacin receptor partial agonist, MK-0354, in Phase I and II studies.

Methods

The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic effects of single and multiple doses (7 days) of MK-0354 (300-4000 mg) were evaluated in two Phase I studies conducted in healthy men. A Phase II study assessed the effects of MK-0354 2.5 g once daily on lipids during 4 weeks in 66 dyslipidemic patients.

Results

MK-0354 single doses up to 4000 mg and multiple doses (7 days) up to 3600 mg produced robust dose-related reductions in free fatty acid (FFA) over 5 hours. Single doses of MK-0354 300 mg and extended release-niacin (Niaspan) 1 g produced comparable reductions in FFA. Suppression of FFA following 7 daily doses of MK-0354 was similar to that after a single dose. In the Phase II study, MK-0354 2.5 g produced little flushing but no clinically meaningful effects on lipids (placebo-adjusted percent change: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, 0.4%, 95% confidence interval −5.2 to 6.0; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, −9.8%, 95% confidence interval −16.8 to −2.7; triglyceride, −5.8%, 95% confidence interval −22.6 to 11.9).

Conclusion

Treatment with MK-0354 for 7 days resulted in plasma FFA suppression with minimal cutaneous flushing. However, 4 weeks of treatment with MK-0354 failed to produce changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or triglycerides.

  James McKenney , Harold Bays , Michael Koren , Christie M. Ballantyne , John F. Paolini , Yale Mitchel , Abigaile Betteridge , Olga Kuznetsova , Aditi Sapre , Christine McCrary Sisk and Darbie Maccubbin
 

Objective

To evaluate the safety profile of extended-release niacin/laropiprant (ERN/LRPT), pooling data from studies in the clinical development program.

Methods

Data were pooled from three active- or placebo-controlled phase 3 studies and three 1-year extensions of phase 2 studies that ranged from 12 to 52 weeks (N = 4747): ERN/LRPT = 2548; ERN or Niaspan® (ERN-NSP = 1268); or simvastatin or placebo (SIMVA-PBO = 931).

Results

The safety and tolerability profile for ERN/LRPT was similar to that of ERN-NSP, except for fewer flushing-related adverse experiences and discontinuations with ERN/LRPT than ERN-NSP. The incidence of consecutive ≥3x the upper limit of normal increases in alanine aminotransferase and/or aspartate aminotransferase was numerically (but not statistically) greater with ERN/LRPT (1.0%) than ERN-NSP (0.5%) and similar to SIMVA-PBO (0.9%). Elevations were reversible with therapy discontinuation and not associated with clinical hepatotoxicity. There was no evidence that ERN/LRPT administered alone or concurrently with a statin had adverse effects on muscle. ERN/LRPT and ERN-NSP produced small median increases in fasting blood glucose levels (∼4 mg/dL) after 24 weeks of treatment, consistent with known effects of niacin.

Conclusion

The favorable safety and tolerability profile of ERN/LRPT for up to 1 year supports the use of LRPT to achieve improved therapeutic dosing of niacin, an agent with comprehensive lipid-modifying efficacy and shown to reduce cardiovascular risk.

  Harold E. Bays , Arvind Shah , Jianxin Lin , Christine McCrary Sisk , John F. Paolini and Darbie Maccubbin
 

Objective

Patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) are at increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Niacin improves lipid abnormalities associated with MetS, but is underused, mainly because of flushing. Laropiprant (LRPT) reduces niacin-induced flushing and, in combination with extended-release niacin (ERN/LRPT), improves lipid levels.

Methods

In this post-hoc subgroup analysis of a phase 3 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 24-week study (n = 1613), we evaluated the efficacy and safety of ERN/LRPT in dyslipidemic patients with MetS. Dyslipidemic patients were randomized 3:2:1 to ERN/LRPT 1 g, ERN 1 g, or placebo. After 4 weeks, active treatment doses were doubled (2 tablets) for 20 weeks.

Results

Relative to placebo, ERN/LRPT significantly lowered low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels to a similar degree in MetS and non-MetS cohorts. ERN/LRPT significantly (P < .001) lowered triglyceride levels versus placebo in patients with MetS and without MetS (−30.2% vs −22.2%, respectively). The between subgroup difference in triglyceride lowering was not significant. For all lipid parameters, ERN/LRPT and ERN produced similar magnitude changes. ERN/LRPT and ERN produced similar increases in median fasting blood glucose levels versus placebo in patients with MetS (2.0 and 4.0 mg/dL, respectively) and without MetS (4.0 mg/dL for both groups), consistent with a known effect of niacin.

Conclusion

In patients with MetS, ERN/LRPT improves multiple lipid parameters associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. ERN/LRPT numerically improved triglyceride levels more in patients with versus without MetS, which is likely related to greater baseline triglycerides in MetS patients.

 
 
 
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