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Articles by Jia Liu
Total Records ( 5 ) for Jia Liu
  Jia Liu , Jiangying Hu , Mingqi Liu , Guozhou Cao , Jianguo Gao and Youfu Luo
  Background and Objective: Zinc oxide has achieved increasing attention in an extensive range of areas, due to its strong antimicrobial effect and generally recognized as safe material listed by FDA. However, the possibility of migration from commercial products is always an issue of mutual concern when its application is food packaging. This study evaluated the migration of nano-zinc oxide from polypropylene food containers to the food-simulating solutions based on the Chinese standard. Methodology: Several experimental factors influenced zinc oxide release: Food simulant, temperature and storage time. Results: Results revealed a significant nano-zinc oxide migration into oily, acidic and aqueous simulants. The amount of zinc oxide migrated increased with storage time and temperature although, zinc oxide showed a low tendency to migrate into food simulants. Conclusion: The Zn2+ substance was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and migration was found to occur within a range of 0.15-0.56 μg L–1. Meanwhile, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and Malvern Zetasizer Nano were applied to identify the existence and the morphology of nano-zinc oxide.
  Ting Long , Zhi-Jun Yu , Jun Wang , Jia Liu and Bing-Shu He
  Background and Objective: The alterations in the gut microbiota composition are gaining increasing attention in view of their influence on the development of ulcerative colitis. The anti colitis effect of orally administered chitooligosaccharides (COS) had been reported in the animal models of ulcerative colitis but the mechanism is still uncertain. Interestingly, COS have long been proposed as potential natural prebiotics based on in vitro experiments. The aim of this study is to confirm the prebiotic property of COS in vivo and further clarify the mechanisms of their anti colitis effect. Materials and Methods: The COS at the dose of 500 mg kg–1 were orally given normal mice and colitis mice treated by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The colon microbial composition in mice was evaluated by qualitative analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA in colonic content samples using real-time PCR. Results: The COS could function as prebiotics by increasing the levels of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria phyla, the relative ratio of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes, as well as common probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium and inhibiting the growth of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla, as well as potential pathogens such as Enterococcus, in both normal and colitis mice. In addition, oral intake of COS were found to enhance the colonic concentrations of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), the dominating fermentation end-products of bacteria in the large bowel having abilities to support the transport processes, energy metabolism, cellular growth and differentiation of colonocytes. Conclusion: The data suggested that COS administration might had beneficial effects on the health of the intestinal tract and more importantly, tended to protect mice from dysbiosis of native gut microbiome and against the suppression of SCFA production, which might be a potential mechanism for their anti colitis effect.
  Jia Liu
  Problem statement: We consider the optimal boundary control of the linearized Navier-Stokes problem. Both the Stokes problem and Oseen problem in rotation form are considered. Approach: We use the Mark and Cell (MAC) discretization method to discretize the optimization problem with linear constraints including the Stokes problem and the Oseen problem in rotation from. Then Reduced Hessian methods are to solve the problem. Results: Numerical experimental results are performed for the boundary optimization problem with the Stokes constraints and Oseen constraints. All the computed solutions and the desired solutions are compared. Conclusions: The proposed reduced Hessian methods have a high accuracy obtaining the optimal boundary conditioning for the Stokes problem and the Oseen problem in rotation form.
  Jia Liu , Alfred S. Lewin , Sonal S. Tuli , Steven C. Ghivizzani , Gregory S. Schultz and David C. Bloom
  Hammerhead ribozymes were designed to target mRNA of several essential herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genes. A ribozyme specific for the late gene UL20 was packaged in an adenovirus vector (Ad-UL20 Rz) and evaluated for its capacity to inhibit the viral replication of several HSV-1 strains, including that of the wild-type HSV-1 (17syn+ and KOS) and several acycloguanosine-resistant strains (PAAr5, tkLTRZ1, and ACGr4) in tissue culture. The Ad-UL20 Rz was also tested for its ability to block an HSV-1 infection, using the mouse footpad model. Mouse footpads were treated with either the Ad-UL20 Rz or an adenoviral vector expressing green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) and then infected immediately thereafter with 104 PFU of HSV-1 strain 17syn+. Ad-UL20 ribozyme treatment consistently led to a 90% rate of protection for mice from lethal HSV-1 infection, while the survival rate in the control groups was less than 45%. Consistent with this protective effect, treatment with the Ad-UL20 Rz reduced the viral DNA load in the feet, the dorsal root ganglia, and the spinal cord relative to that of the Ad-GFP-treated animals. This study suggests that ribozymes targeting essential genes of the late kinetic class may represent a new therapeutic strategy for inhibiting HSV infection.
  Alokes Majumdar , Parameswary A. Muniandy , Jia Liu , Ji-lan Liu , Su-ting Liu , Bernard Cuenoud and Michael M. Seidman
  Information from exogenous donor DNA can be introduced into the genome via homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways. These pathways are stimulated by double strand breaks and by DNA damage such as interstrand cross-links. We have employed triple helix-forming oligonucleotides linked to psoralen (pso-TFO) to introduce a DNA interstrand cross-link at a specific site in the genome of living mammalian cells. Co-introduction of duplex DNA with target region homology resulted in precise knock in of the donor at frequencies 2–3 orders of magnitude greater than with donor alone. Knock-in was eliminated in cells deficient in ERCC1-XPF, which is involved in recombinational pathways as well as cross-link repair. Separately, single strand oligonucleotide donors (SSO) were co-introduced with the pso-TFO. These were 10-fold more active than the duplex knock-in donor. SSO efficacy was further elevated in cells deficient in ERCC1-XPF, in contrast to the duplex donor. Resected single strand ends have been implicated as critical intermediates in sequence modulation by SSO, as well as duplex donor knock in. We asked whether there would be a competition between the donor species for these ends if both were present with the pso-TFO. The frequency of duplex donor knock in was unaffected by a 100-fold molar excess of the SSO. The same result was obtained when the homing endonuclease I-SceI was used to initiate HDR at the target site. We conclude that the entry of double strand breaks into distinct HDR pathways is controlled by factors other than the nucleic acid partners in those pathways.
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