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Articles by Jennifer G. Robinson
Total Records ( 7 ) for Jennifer G. Robinson
  Jennifer G. Robinson , Robert Wallace , Monika M. Safford , Mary Pettinger , Barbara Cochrane and Marcia G. Ko
 

Background

Women's long-term patterns of evidence-based preventive medication use after a diagnosis of coronary heart disease have not been sufficiently studied.

Methods

Postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years were eligible for randomization in the Women's Health Initiative's hormone trials if they met inclusion and exclusion criteria and were >80% adherent during a placebo-lead-in period and in the dietary modification trial if they were willing to follow a 20% fat diet. Those with adjudicated myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization after the baseline visit were included in the analysis (n = 2627). Baseline visits occurred between 1993 and 1998, then annually until the trials ended in 2002 through 2005; medication inventories were obtained at baseline and years 1, 3, 6, and 9.

Results

Use at the first Women's Health Initiative visit after a coronary heart disease diagnosis increased over time for statins (49% to 72%; P < .0001), beta-blockers (49% to 62%; P = .003), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ACEI/ARBs; 26%-43%; P < .0001). Aspirin use remained stable at 76% (P = .09). Once women reported using a statin, aspirin, or beta-blocker, 84% to 89% reported use at 1 or more subsequent visits, with slightly lower rates for ACEI/ARBS (76%). Statin, aspirin, beta-blocker, or ACEI/ARB use was reported at 2 or more consecutive visits by 57%, 66%, 48%, and 28%, respectively. These drugs were initiated or resumed at a later visit by 24%, 17%, 15%, and 17%, respectively, and were never used during the period of follow-up by 19%, 10%, 33%, and 49% respectively.

Conclusions

Efforts to improve secondary prevention medication use should target both drug initiation and restarting drugs in patients who have discontinued them.

  Jennifer G. Robinson and Benjamin Booth
 

Background

Statins are the evidence-based drugs of choice for the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objective

Statin use has increased in those ≥65 years, but patterns of use in subgroups of elderly are unknown.

Methods

Weighted data from the 2001 through 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were combined for this analysis.

Results

Statin use increased in all sex, age, and risk categories between the 2001-2002 and 2005-2006 surveys, when the greatest use was by men 65 to 74 years of age with CVD (80%), followed by women with CVD who were 65-79 of age (64%-69%), women and men with diabetes who were 65-69 years of age (56% and 94%, respectively); statins were used by <42% of patients without CVD or diabetes. In adjusted logistic regression models, those with diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 1.8-2.6), CVD but no diabetes (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.5-3.6), and CVD and diabetes (OR 5.2, 95% CI 3.9-7.1) were more likely to use statins than those without CVD or diabetes (P ≤ .001). A significant interaction between age and sex was found, where 75- to 79-year-old women were more likely to report statin use than men 65-69 years of age (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.29-3.35). In general, those ages 65-69 years were more likely to use a statin than those ≥70 years (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.39-1.08, P = .08). Nonwhite persons aged ≥70 years reported less statin use than whites aged 65-69 (OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.10-0.30). Mexican-American subjects were less likely to report statin use than whites.

Conclusions

Although statin use has increased substantially over time, statins remain underused in both the primary and secondary prevention of CVD in the elderly, with some evidence of disparities by sex, advancing age, and race/ethnicity.

  Carl E. Orringer , Jennifer G. Robinson , Ralph La Forge and Christopher R. Seymour
 

Background

In 2010 a survey of the National Lipid Association (NLA) membership was developed and launched with the objective of exploring the demographics, practice patterns, and educational needs of the health professionals in our organization involved in the practice of clinical lipidology.

Objectives

To report the results of this survey and use this information to enable the organization to better serve the needs of our membership.

Methods

A 30-question survey was administered to the NLA membership before and shortly after the Annual Scientific Sessions in May, 2010. Demographic information, test ordering patterns, educational needs and resources, and technology awareness of 640 valid respondents was assessed.

Results

The respondents represent a balanced mix of practitioners in rural and metropolitan population centers throughout the United States. Physicians represent 67%, nurse practitioners and physician assistants 16%, and pharmacists 8% of the respondents. Among physicians, 50% are internal medicine or family medicine specialists, 32% cardiologists, and 11% endocrinologists. Most working in lipid clinics reported that their clinic was financially solvent. The respondents believed that adjunctive lipoprotein testing was clinically useful in risk prediction. The greatest educational needs included statin intolerance; strategies for improving compliance; metabolic syndrome; and lipoprotein particle and apolipoprotein B concentration. The most important sources of lipid information were the Journal of Clinical Lipidology and the NLA Annual Scientific Sessions.

Conclusions

The survey provided valuable information that may be used to better serve the practice and educational needs of the membership of the NLA.

  Anne C. Goldberg , Paul N. Hopkins , Peter P. Toth , Christie M. Ballantyne , Daniel J. Rader , Jennifer G. Robinson , Stephen R. Daniels , Samuel S. Gidding , Sarah D. de Ferranti , Matthew K. Ito , Mary P. McGowan , Patrick M. Moriarty , William C. Cromwell , Joyce L. Ross and Paul E. Ziajka
  The familial hypercholesterolemias (FH) are a group of genetic defects resulting in severe elevations of blood cholesterol levels and increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. FH is among the most commonly occurring congenital metabolic disorders. FH is a treatable disease. Aggressive lipid lowering is necessary to achieve the target LDL cholesterol reduction of at least 50% or more. Even greater target LDL cholesterol reductions may be necessary for FH patients who have other CHD risk factors. Despite the prevalence of this disease and the availability of effective treatment options, FH is both underdiagnosed and undertreated, particularly among children. Deficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of FH indicate the need for greatly increased awareness and understanding of this disease, both on the part of the public and of healthcare practitioners. This document provides recommendations for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of FH in pediatric and adult patients developed by the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia. This report goes beyond previously published guidelines by providing specific clinical guidance for the primary care clinician and lipid specialist with the goal of improving care of patients with FH and reducing their elevated risk for CHD.
  Jennifer G. Robinson , Catherine Rahilly-Tierney , Elizabeth Lawler and J. Michael Gaziano
 

Background

Most incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) occurs after patients reach the age of 65. The additive benefits of aggressive risk factor management with advancing age are not well established.

Objective

To evaluate the relationship between control of four modifiable risk factors (smoking, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and aspirin use) and risk of CVD in a primary prevention population of older men.

Materials and Methods

U.S. male physicians from the Physicians' Health Study (n = 4182; an epidemiologic follow-up of a randomized trial of aspirin and beta-carotene) who in 1997 were ≥65 years, free of CVD and diabetes, and had a blood sample on file were studied. Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age and competing causes of death. The first of any CVD event, defined as cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization, nonfatal stroke, transient ischemic attack, carotid artery surgery, and other peripheral vascular disease surgery, was measured.

Results

Mean follow-up was 9.3 years, mean age was 73 years, and 96% were nonsmokers. Compared with when 4 of 4 risk factors were controlled (6.0% of participants), control of 0 of 4 risk factors almost quadrupled the risk of CVD (0.4% of participants; event rate 41.2%; hazard ratio [HR] 3.83, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.72-8.55); control of 1 of 4 risk factors more than doubled the risk (14.2% of participants; HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.80-3.57); control of 2 of 4 risk factors almost doubled the risk (43.8% of participants; HR 1.94, 95% CI 1.41-2.69), and those with control of 3 of 4 risk factors also were at increased risk (35.6% of participants; HR 1.80, 95% CI 1.30-2.50). Control of each additional risk factor was associated with greater cardiovascular protection (P for trend P = .002). Depending on the number of risk factors controlled, the number-needed to control to prevent one CVD event ranged from 5 to 22.

Conclusion

Control of 4 treatable risk factors (nonsmoking, control of non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol and blood pressure, and aspirin use) was associated with substantial protection against incident cardiovascular events in older men even after adjustment for competing causes of mortality.

  Jennifer G. Robinson , Christie M. Ballantyne , Willa A. Hsueh , Jeffrey B. Rosen , Jianxin Lin , Arvind K. Shah , Joanne E. Tomassini , Robert S. Lowe and Andrew M. Tershakovec
 

Background

Treatment response to lipid-lowering therapy can vary in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) due to various patient demographic and baseline characteristics.

Objective

This study assessed the relationships between baseline characteristics and changes in lipid variables, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and attainment of prespecified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) levels in MetS patients treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin.

Methods

This is a post-hoc analysis of a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, 6-week parallel study in >1000 hypercholesterolemic subjects (median age of 59 years) with MetS and moderately high/high coronary heart disease risk who were treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 and 10/40 mg) or atorvastatin (10, 20, 40 mg). Factors that could affect these treatments were assessed by multivariate analysis.

Results

Increasing age, abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥40/35 inches for men/women), and lower baseline hs-CRP were significant predictors of greater reductions in LDL-C, non-HDL-C, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not for changes in HDL-C or apolipoprotein AI; effects of race and baseline triglycerides, non-HDL-C, LDL-C, or HDL-C levels were more limited. Age ≥65 years (versus <65 years) was also associated with significantly greater attainment of all LDL-C and non-HDL-C targets, whereas abdominal obesity, gender (female > male) and lower baseline LDL-C, non-HDL-C, triglycerides, and hs-CRP were associated with improved attainment for some of these targets. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance tertiles, and diabetes did not predict response for any efficacy variable. Ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment (versus atorvastatin) was a significant predictor for change in most efficacy variables.

Conclusions

Treatment responses to ezetimibe/simvastatin and atorvastatin in at-risk patients with the MetS were related to age (≥65 years), abdominal obesity, and lower baseline hs-CRP. Ezetimibe/simvastatin treatment was found to be consistently more effective than atorvastatin at the specified dose comparisons across these subgroups. The clinical value of predictive factors requires further study in outcome trials.

  Jennifer G. Robinson , Christie M. Ballantyne , Willa Hsueh , Jeffrey Rosen , Jianxin Lin , Arvind Shah , Robert S. Lowe , Mary E. Hanson and Andrew M. Tershakovec
 

Background

Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and atherosclerotic vascular disease (AVD) are associated with increased coronary heart disease risk.

Objective

To assess percent change from baseline in lipids and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels and the proportion of subjects reaching specified low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein B (Apo B) single, dual, and triple targets and hs-CRP <2 mg/L among subjects with and without AVD treated with ezetimibe/simvastatin or atorvastatin for 6 weeks.

Methods

Adults (N = 1143) with MetS and hypercholesterolemia were randomized to starting and next higher doses of ezetimibe/simvastatin (10/20 or 10/40 mg) or atorvastatin (10, 20, or 40 mg).

Results

Ezetimibe/simvastatin produced significantly greater reductions in evaluated lipids than atorvastatin for most prespecified dose comparisons. More subjects without AVD achieved LDL-C levels <100 mg/dL, non-HDL-C levels <130 mg/dL, and dual LDL-C/non-HDL targets (83%-92% vs 62%-76%) and Apo B <90 mg/dL or triple targets (65%-75% vs 41%-49%) with 40 mg of atorvastatin or 10/20-40 mg of ezetimibe/simvastatin compared with 10 or 20 mg of atorvastatin, respectively. More subjects with AVD achieved LDL-C<70 mg/dL and non-HDL-C<100 mg/dL single and dual targets (65%-80%) and Apo B <80 mg/dL (53%-63%) with 10/20-40 mg of ezetimibe/simvastatin than with 40 mg of atorvastatin (40%-49%). More subjects achieved triple lipid targets with 10/20-40 mg of ezetimibe/simvastatin versus 1040 mg of atorvastatin (50%-63% vs 24%-40%). Achievement of hs-CRP <2 mg/L was similar across all doses regardless of AVD status.

Conclusions

More intensive therapy was required for >80% of subjects to achieve LDL-C <100 mg/dL and non-HDL-C <130 mg/dL and for the majority of subjects to achieve lower levels of LDL-C <70 mg/dL, non-HDL-C <100 mg/dL, and/or Apo B <90 mg/dL. The effect of ezetimibe on cardiovascular risk reduction has yet to be established. (Clintrials.gov no: NCT00409773)

 
 
 
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