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Articles by Jeffrey D. Lifson
Total Records ( 9 ) for Jeffrey D. Lifson
  Juan P. Giraldo-Vela , Richard Rudersdorf , Chungwon Chung , Ying Qi , Lyle T. Wallace , Benjamin Bimber , Gretta J. Borchardt , Debra L. Fisk , Chrystal E. Glidden , John T. Loffredo , Shari M. Piaskowski , Jessica R. Furlott , Juan P. Morales-Martinez , Nancy A. Wilson , William M. Rehrauer , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Mary Carrington and David I. Watkins
  The role of CD4+ T cells in the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is not well understood. Even though strong HIV- and SIV-specific CD4+ T-cell responses have been detected in individuals that control viral replication, major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) molecules have not been definitively linked with slow disease progression. In a cohort of 196 SIVmac239-infected Indian rhesus macaques, a group of macaques controlled viral replication to less than 1,000 viral RNA copies/ml. These elite controllers (ECs) mounted a broad SIV-specific CD4+ T-cell response. Here, we describe five macaque MHC-II alleles (Mamu-DRB*w606, -DRB*w2104, -DRB1*0306, -DRB1*1003, and -DPB1*06) that restricted six SIV-specific CD4+ T-cell epitopes in ECs and report the first association between specific MHC-II alleles and elite control. Interestingly, the macaque MHC-II alleles, Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306, were enriched in this EC group (P values of 0.02 and 0.05, respectively). Additionally, Mamu-B*17-positive SIV-infected rhesus macaques that also expressed these two MHC-II alleles had significantly lower viral loads than Mamu-B*17-positive animals that did not express Mamu-DRB1*1003 and -DRB1*0306 (P value of <0.0001). The study of MHC-II alleles in macaques that control viral replication could improve our understanding of the role of CD4+ T cells in suppressing HIV/SIV replication and further our understanding of HIV vaccine design.
  M. Quinn DeGottardi , Sharon K. Lew , Michael Piatak , Bin Jia , Yang Feng , Sandra J. Lee , Jason M. Brenchley , Daniel C. Douek , Toshiaki Kodama , Jeffrey D. Lifson and David T. Evans
  Molecular differences in the envelope glycoproteins of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) determine virus infectivity and cellular tropism. To examine how these properties contribute to productive infection in vivo, rhesus macaques were inoculated with strains of single-cycle SIV (scSIV) engineered to express three different envelope glycoproteins with full-length (TMopen) or truncated (TMstop) cytoplasmic tails. The 239 envelope uses CCR5 for infection of memory CD4+ T cells, the 316 envelope also uses CCR5 but has enhanced infectivity for primary macrophages, and the 155T3 envelope uses CXCR4 for infection of both naive and memory CD4+ T cells. Separate groups of six rhesus macaques were inoculated intravenously with mixtures of TMopen and TMstop scSIVmac239, scSIVmac316, and scSIVmac155T3. A multiplex real-time PCR assay specific for unique sequence tags engineered into each virus was then used to measure viral loads for each strain independently. Viral loads in plasma peaked on day 4 for each strain and were resolved below the threshold of detection within 4 to 10 weeks. Truncation of the envelope cytoplasmic tail significantly increased the peak of viremia for all three envelope variants and the titer of SIV-specific antibody responses. Although peak viremias were similar for both R5- and X4-tropic viruses, clearance of scSIVmac155T3 TMstop was significantly delayed relative to the other strains, possibly reflecting the infection of a CXCR4+ cell population that is less susceptible to the cytopathic effects of virus infection. These studies reveal differences in the peaks and durations of a single round of productive infection that reflect envelope-specific differences in infectivity, chemokine receptor specificity, and cellular tropism.
  John C. Tilton , Maura M. Manion , Marlise R. Luskin , Alison J. Johnson , Andy A. Patamawenu , Claire W. Hallahan , Nancy A. Cogliano-Shutta , JoAnn M. Mican , Richard T. Davey , Shyam Kottilil , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Julia A. Metcalf , Richard A. Lempicki and Mark Connors
  Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection has been associated with perturbations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), including diminished frequencies in the peripheral blood and reduced production of type I interferons (IFNs) in response to in vitro stimulation. However, recent data suggest a paradoxical increase in production of type 1 interferons in vivo in HIV-infected patients compared to uninfected controls. Using a flow cytometric assay to detect IFN-α-producing cells within unseparated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we observed that short-term interruptions of antiretroviral therapy are sufficient to result in significantly reduced IFN-α production by PDC in vitro in response to CpG A ligands or inactivated HIV particles. The primary cause of diminished IFN-α production was reduced responsiveness of PDC to de novo stimulation, not diminished per cell IFN-α production or migration of cells to lymphoid organs. Real-time PCR analysis of purified PDC from patients prior to and during treatment interruptions revealed that active HIV-1 replication is associated with upregulation of type I IFN-stimulated gene expression. Treatment of hepatitis C virus-infected patients with IFN-α2b and ribavirin for hepatitis C virus infection resulted in a profound suppression of de novo IFN-α production in response to CpG A or inactivated HIV particles, similar to the response observed in HIV-infected patients. Together, these results suggest that diminished production of type I interferons in vitro by PDC from HIV-1-infected patients may not represent diminished interferon production in vivo. Rather, diminished function in vitro is likely a consequence of prior activation via type I interferons or HIV virions in vivo.
  Keith Mansfield , Sabine M. Lang , Marie-Claire Gauduin , Hannah B. Sanford , Jeffrey D. Lifson , R. Paul Johnson and Ronald C. Desrosiers
  An attenuated derivative of simian immunodeficiency virus strain 239 deleted of V1-V2 sequences in the envelope gene (SIV239ΔV1-V2) was used for vaccine/challenge experiments in rhesus monkeys. Peak levels of viral RNA in plasma of 104 to 106.5 copies/ml in the weeks immediately following inoculation of SIV239ΔV1-V2 were 10- to 1,000-fold lower than those observed with parental SIV239 (~107.3 copies/ml). Viral loads consistently remained below 200 copies/ml after 8 weeks of infection by the attenuated SIV239ΔV1-V2 strain. Viral localization experiments revealed large numbers of infected cells within organized lymphoid nodules of the colonic gut-associated lymphoid tissue at 14 days; double-labeling experiments indicated that 93.5% of the virally infected cells at this site were positive for the macrophage marker CD68. Cellular and humoral immune responses measured principally by gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot and neutralization assays were variable in the five vaccinated monkeys. One monkey had responses in these assays comparable to or only slightly less than those observed in monkeys infected with parental, wild-type SIV239. Four of the vaccinated monkeys, however, had low, marginal, or undetectable responses in these same assays. These five vaccinated monkeys and three naïve control monkeys were subsequently challenged intravenously with wild-type SIV239. Three of the five vaccinated monkeys, including the one with strong anti-SIV immune responses, were strongly protected against the challenge on the basis of viral load measurements. Surprisingly, two of the vaccinated monkeys were strongly protected against SIV239 challenge despite the presence of cellular anti-SIV responses of low-frequency and low-titer anti-SIV antibody responses. These results indicate that high-titer anti-SIV antibody responses and high-frequency anti-SIV cellular immune responses measurable by standard assays from the peripheral blood are not needed to achieve strong vaccine protection, even against a difficult, neutralization-resistant strain such as SIV239.
  Ronald S. Veazey , Paula M. Acierno , Kimberly J. McEvers , Susanne H. C. Baumeister , Gabriel J. Foster , Melisa D. Rett , Michael H. Newberg , Marcelo J. Kuroda , Kenneth Williams , Eun-Young Kim , Steven M. Wolinsky , E. Peter Rieber , Michael Piatak , Jeffrey D. Lifson , David C. Montefiori , Charles R. Brown , Vanessa M. Hirsch and Jorn E. Schmitz
  Previously we have shown that CD8+ T cells are critical for containment of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viremia and that rapid and profound depletion of CD4+ T cells occurs in the intestinal tract of acutely infected macaques. To determine the impact of SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses on the magnitude of the CD4+ T-cell depletion, we investigated the effect of CD8+ lymphocyte depletion during primary SIV infection on CD4+ T-cell subsets and function in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and intestinal tissues. In peripheral blood, CD8+ lymphocyte-depletion changed the dynamics of CD4+ T-cell loss, resulting in a more pronounced loss 2 weeks after infection, followed by a temporal rebound approximately 2 months after infection, when absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells were restored to baseline levels. These CD4+ T cells showed a markedly skewed phenotype, however, as there were decreased levels of memory cells in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques compared to controls. In intestinal tissues and lymph nodes, we observed a significantly higher loss of CCR5+ CD45RA CD4+ T cells in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted macaques than in controls, suggesting that these SIV-targeted CD4+ T cells were eliminated more efficiently in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted animals. Also, CD8+ lymphocyte depletion significantly affected the ability to generate SIV Gag-specific CD4+ T-cell responses and neutralizing antibodies. These results reemphasize that SIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are absolutely critical to initiate at least partial control of SIV infection.
  Eun-Young Kim , Ronald S. Veazey , Roland Zahn , Kimberly J. McEvers , Susanne H. C. Baumeister , Gabriel J. Foster , Melisa D. Rett , Michael H. Newberg , Marcelo J. Kuroda , E. Peter Rieber , Michael Piatak , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Norman L. Letvin , Steven M. Wolinsky and Jorn E. Schmitz
  Here, we investigated the containment of virus replication in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection by CD8+ lymphocytes. Escape mutations in Mamu-A*01 epitopes appeared first in SIV Tat TL8 and then in SIV Gag p11C. The appearance of escape mutations in SIV Gag p11C was coincident with compensatory changes outside of the epitope. Eliminating CD8+ lymphocytes from rhesus monkeys during primary infection resulted in more rapid disease progression that was associated with preservation of canonical epitopes. These results confirm the importance of cytotoxic T cells in controlling viremia and the constraint on epitope sequences that require compensatory changes to go to fixation.
  Zandrea Ambrose , Lara Compton , Michael Piatak Jr. , Ding Lu , W. Gregory Alvord , Mariusz S. Lubomirski , James E. K. Hildreth , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Christopher J. Miller and Vineet N. KewalRamani
  The rising prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in women, especially in resource-limited settings, accentuates the need for accessible, inexpensive, and female-controlled preexposure prophylaxis strategies to prevent mucosal transmission of the virus. While many compounds can inactivate HIV-1 in vitro, evaluation in animal models for mucosal transmission of virus may help identify which approaches will be effective in vivo. Macaques challenged intravaginally with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) provide a model to preclinically evaluate candidate microbicides. 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD) prevents HIV-1 and SIV infection of target cells at subtoxic doses in vitro. Consistent with these findings, intravaginal challenge of macaques with SIVmac251 preincubated with BCD prevented mucosal transmission, as measured by plasma viremia and antiviral antibodies, through 10 weeks postchallenge. In an initial challenge, BCD applied topically prior to SIVmac251 prevented intravaginal transmission of virus compared to controls (P < 0.0001). However, upon a second virus challenge following BCD pretreatment, the majority of the previously protected animals became infected. The mechanism through which animals become infected at a frequency similar to that of controls after prior exposure to BCD and SIVmac251 in subsequent intravaginal virus challenges (P = 0.63), despite the potent antiviral properties of BCD, remains to be determined. These results highlight the unpredictability of antiviral compounds as topical microbicides and suggest that repeated exposures to candidate treatments should be considered for in vivo evaluation.
  Muhamuda Kader , Wail M. Hassan , Matthew Eberly , Michael Piatak , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Mario Roederer and Joseph J. Mattapallil
  The rectal mucosa is a major site for human immunodeficiency virus entry and CD4 T-cell depletion. The early and near-total loss of these cells from the rectal mucosa severely compromises the ability of the mucosal immune system to control various opportunistic infections. Protecting these cells from infection and destruction can delay disease progression, leading to a better long-term outcome. Here we show that effective suppression of viral infection in memory CD4 T cells from the rectal mucosa and peripheral blood to a very low level with antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiated prior to the peak of infection is associated with opposite outcomes in these tissues. A near-total loss of CD4 T cells in the rectal mucosa contrasted with preservation of most memory CD4 T cells in peripheral blood during the course of treatment. Interestingly, ART significantly reduced viral infection in memory CD4 T cells from both rectal mucosa and peripheral blood. Although early ART was of limited value in protecting the CD4 T cells in the rectal mucosa, the significant preservation of peripheral CD4 T cells could contribute to maintaining immune competence, leading to a better long-term outcome.
  Shuji Sato , Eloisa Yuste , William A. Lauer , Eun Hyuk Chang , Jennifer S. Morgan , Jacqueline G. Bixby , Jeffrey D. Lifson , Ronald C. Desrosiers and Welkin E. Johnson
  Here, we describe the evolution of antigenic escape variants in a rhesus macaque that developed unusually high neutralizing antibody titers to SIVmac239. By 42 weeks postinfection, 50% neutralization of SIVmac239 was achieved with plasma dilutions of 1:1,000. Testing of purified immunoglobulin confirmed that the neutralizing activity was antibody mediated. Despite the potency of the neutralizing antibody response, the animal displayed a typical viral load profile and progressed to terminal AIDS with a normal time course. Viral envelope sequences from week 16 and week 42 plasma contained an excess of nonsynonymous substitutions, predominantly in V1 and V4, including individual sites with ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) highly suggestive of strong positive selection. Recombinant viruses encoding envelope sequences isolated from these time points remained resistant to neutralization by all longitudinal plasma samples, revealing the failure of the animal to mount secondary responses to the escaped variants. Substitutions at two sites with significant dN/dS values, one in V1 and one in V4, were independently sufficient to confer nearly complete resistance to neutralization. Substitutions at three additional sites, one in V4 and two in gp41, conferred moderate to high levels of resistance when tested individually. All the amino acid changes leading to escape resulted from single nucleotide substitutions. The observation that antigenic escape resulted from individual, single amino acid replacements at sites well separated in current structural models of Env indicates that the virus can utilize multiple independent pathways to rapidly achieve similar levels of resistance.
 
 
 
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