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Articles by Jayant Biswas
Total Records ( 6 ) for Jayant Biswas
  Yogita Rajput and Jayant Biswas
  The subterranean caves represent one of the most suitable examples of extremities in ecosystem and the microbes abiding in such environments represent truly extremophiles in nature. In the present study, Micrococcus bacterial strains were isolated from various depths of the Kotumsar cave (India) and further 12 strains of 3 specific species (M. luteus, M. radiodurans and M. agilis) have been selected for further studies. The protein profiles by SDS-PAGE technique were estimated for each strain and the effect of subterranean depth on the characterization of protein profiles have been tried to establish by the linear regression method. The strains isolated from the deeper zones of the cave exhibits more number of protein bands, carrying higher molecular weights. Statistical analysis also support the same i.e., the strains isolated from the deeper zones of the cave revealed much protein as compared to the strains isolated from the anterior zones. The chances of developing extremozymes (biocatalysts) in the strains, isolated from the deeper zones could not be denied. Further, the result obtained from this study also suggests redrawing the evolutionary tree of studied bacterial strains.
  Yogita Rajput , Jayant Biswas and Vibhuti Rai
  The almost high and stable environmental factors always represent a subterranean cave as one of the most vulnerable environments on Earth. In such conditions, the microbial communities that survive definitely reveal strong antimicrobial and other relevant biological activities. In the present study, the antimicrobial activity and the antibiotic sensitivity of seven Streptomyces strains isolated from various depth dependent microhabitats of a subterranean cave has been tested. Antimicrobial activity was found maximum against E. coli than Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Further, the strains isolated from the deeper habitats of the cave have revealed much antagonistic activities as compared to the strains of anterior habitats. Some interesting results have also been revealed from antibiotic sensitivity tests which altogether indicate the possibilities for occurrence of high potential Streptomyces strains from this particular cave, useful for biotechnological tools.
  Khushi Ram Sahu , Jayant Biswas , K. Venu Achari and Krishna Mohan Sinha
  Subterranean caves are always characterized by several uncommon ecological factors due to which a high degree of biological adaptation is always required to establish any population in it. In the present work, the morphology of the sound producing organ of a cave cricket Homoeogryllus indicus has been studied and the ecological importance of the same has been tried to correlate with its habitat. Fifty adult male individuals of H. indicus were collected from Kachhuwa-Pahar cave and preserved separately in plastic veil containing 4% formalin. Complete stridulatory apparatus was studied under a binocular microscope and the sketches of the tegmina and teeth were drawn by using camera lucida mounted on the microscope. The total number of teeth present in both the files were found to be comparatively less in number than the other members of the same genus which represents an example of regressed evolution. However, a comparatively regressed stridulatory system observed in this species along with other reported morphologically regressive characteristics has been discussed from the perspective of ecological fitness for cave life.
  Jayant Biswas and Daniel B. Harries
  The subterranean mode of life always needs a high degree of biological adaptation. The cavernicolous species usually get selected from those which are preadapted with biological traits suitable for cave life and finally occupied a separate taxonomic status. With the ever going exploration of subterranean passages in Jaintia hills, till date several troglobitic species have been recorded from this particular area. Cave biota survey with respect to the explored subterranean passages of the area was conducted in February 2011. Krem Bylliat (cave) is one of them, measure horizontally 600 m having several openings. The cave is situated in the boundary of two major rock formations, nearer to one of the main tributary of river Kopili. Though, the cave is harbour of rich biodiversity, it was found to be relatively impoverished in terms of troglomorphic taxa. Possible factors, obviating the evolution of troglomorphy in this cave have been discussed.
  Jayant Biswas , Shivam Shrotriya , Yogita Rajput and Saugata Sasmal
  The roosting microchiropterans mostly prefer caves and are highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbances. The caves of the Kanger Valley National Park, is becoming day by day the most crowd puller spot for Central India and due to which it often overruled all the laws of ecotourism. In the present study, two microchiropteran species were found to roost together in the caves of the Kanger Valley National Park, India with distinct microhabitats. Rhinolophus rouxii was found in the twilight to dark zone of the cave while Hipposideros cineraceus was found to occupy the more stable zones of the cave and was highly sensitive to anthropogenic disturbance. The population sizes of the bats roosting inside the two major caves have been estimated and compared with the earlier available records and this provides evidence of a decline in abundance. Further, the gestation/reproductive phase of these bat populations was also found to coincide with the period during which the caves remain under the highest anthropogenic pressure. In the present study several aspects which could threatened the existences of the cave bats have been noted and proper strategy to re-establish their populations have been discussed by maintaining more or less the tourist pressure intact in the caves.
  Yogita Rajput , Vibhuti Rai and Jayant Biswas
  Bacterial communities are often found to play a major role in building the foundation of food chain in the food starved cave ecosystem. Earlier it was assumed that due to lack of direct external environmental impact the caves were an almost sterile ecosystem. But today, the ever increasing human activities inside it, in the form of ecotourism exert a major impact on its native microbes, often stopping its growth and polluting the whole ecosystem. The situation is often found to be responsible for producing some human pathogenic bacteria inside it, which might pose a threat of infection to the other tourists. Kotumsar cave is a well known tourist pulling limestone cave from central part of India which is also a harbour of various native cavernicoles. In the present study, the bacterial communities existing in different sediments of this cave were screened and identified. The growth rates of each isolate were also verified against various temperature ranges and the maximum growth was found to coincide with the annual mean temperature of the cave. Further, the impact of the same has been correlated with the existing biodiversity, geophysical factors and the human activities inside the cave. Finally, the probabilities of pathogenic threats to human beings due to the respective bacterial communities have also been discussed.
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