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Articles by Jay M. McDonald
Total Records ( 2 ) for Jay M. McDonald
  Chang Hyun Byon , Amjad Javed , Qun Dai , John C. Kappes , Thomas L. Clemens , Victor M. Darley-Usmar , Jay M. McDonald and Yabing Chen
  Oxidative stress plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis including the formation of lipid laden macrophages and the development of inflammation. However, oxidative stress-induced molecular signaling that regulates the development of vascular calcification has not been investigated in depth. Osteogenic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is critical in the development of calcification in atherosclerotic lesions. An important contributor to oxidative stress in atherosclerotic lesions is the formation of hydrogen peroxide from diverse sources in vascular cells. In this study we defined molecular signaling that is operative in the H2O2-induced VSMC calcification. We found that H2O2 promotes a phenotypic switch of VSMC from contractile to osteogenic phenotype. This response was associated with an increased expression and transactivity of Runx2, a key transcription factor for osteogenic differentiation. The essential role of Runx2 in oxidative stress-induced VSMC calcification was further confirmed by Runx2 depletion and overexpression. Inhibition of Runx2 using short hairpin RNA blocked VSMC calcification, and adenovirus-mediated overexpression of Runx2 alone induced VSMC calcification. Inhibition of H2O2-activated AKT signaling blocked VSMC calcification and Runx2 induction concurrently. This blockage did not cause VSMC apoptosis. Taken together, our data demonstrate a critical role for AKT-mediated induction of Runx2 in oxidative stress-induced VSMC calcification.
  Yabing Chen , Xiaohong Wang , Lie Di , Guoping Fu , Yuhong Chen , Li Bai , Jianzhong Liu , Xu Feng , Jay M. McDonald , Sue Michalek , Yinghong He , Mei Yu , Yang-Xin Fu , Renren Wen , Hui Wu and Demin Wang
  Phospholipase Cγ2 (PLCγ2) is an important signaling effector of multiple receptors in the immune system. Here we show that PLCγ2-deficient mice displayed impaired lymph node organogenesis but normal splenic structure and Peyer`s patches. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a tumor necrosis factor family cytokine and is essential for lymph node organogenesis. Importantly, PLCγ2 deficiency severely impaired RANKL signaling, resulting in marked reduction of RANKL-induced activation of MAPKs, p38 and JNK, but not ERK. The lack of PLCγ2 markedly diminished RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB, AP-1, and NFATc1. Moreover, PLCγ2 deficiency impaired RANKL-mediated biological function, leading to failure of the PLCγ2-deficient bone marrow macrophage precursors to differentiate into osteoclasts after RANKL stimulation. Re-introduction of PLCγ2 but not PLCγ1 restores RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation of PLCγ2-deficient bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage. Taken together, PLCγ2 is essential for RANK signaling, and its deficiency leads to defective lymph node organogenesis and osteoclast differentiation.
 
 
 
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