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Articles by Javaid Iqbal
Total Records ( 9 ) for Javaid Iqbal
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Javaid Iqbal , Shuaib Kaleem , Allah Wasaya and M. Ishaque
  A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomic Research Area of PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi to evaluate the quality parameters of spring planted sunflower hybrids as influenced by varying potassium application doses during two consecutive years i.e. 2008 and 2009. Experiment was quadruplicated using randomized complete block design with split plot arrangement keeping different levels of nutritional area in main plots and sunflower hybrids in subplots. Protein and achene oil contents were determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Technique, where as fatty acid composition was determined by GC-9A Fatty Acid Analyzer. Different levels of nutritional area significantly increased protein content and palmitic acid concentration in achene but reduced oil content when levels of nutritional area vary from 60 x 20 cm2 to 60 x 60 cm2 (2 plants/hill). However, the concentration of oleic, linoleic and linolenic remained un-affected by varying levels of nutritional area. Hybrid Hysun-33 produced significantly higher protein content (18.89%) in achene as compared to S-278. Conversely, hybrid S-278 accumulated significantly higher oil content (43.48 %) as compared to hybrid Hysun-33. No proper pattern was noticed regarding stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid accumulation in achenes. It is concluded that sunflower hybrids exhibited differential genotypic response to different levels of nutritional area by increasing oil contents, palmitic acid concentration and reducing protein contents in achenes without affecting stearic, oleic, linoleic and linolenic acid concentration.
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Shuaib Kaleem , M. Ishaque , Javaid Iqbal , Mahmood A. Randhawa , M. Rasheed and Hammad A. Khan
  Agronomic traits ultimately contribute to final achene yield. Any improvement in agronomic traits means increase in achene yield. For this purpose, a field trial was conducted at experimental area of Agronomy Department, PMAS Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi during two consecutive years 2008 and 2009 to evaluate the performance of two sunflower hybrids i.e S-278 and Hysun-33 under different levels of nutritional area i.e, 60 x 20, 60 x 30, 60 x 40, 60 x 50, 60 x 60 (with 1 plant/hill) and 60 x 60 cm-2 (with 2 plants hill). The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications in split plot arrangement keeping nutritional areas levels in main plot and sunflower hybrids in sub plot effects. It was observed that among sunflower hybrids, S-278 produced significantly taller plants, heavier 1000-achene weight, higher achene and stalk yield, but lesser harvest index than these in Hysun-33. Both hybrids were, however, similar for head diameter and number of achene/head. Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 produced the highest achene yield (2.89 t/ha), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 produced the lowest achene yield (2.45 t/ha). Likewise, sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 40 cm2 computed the highest harvest index (37.75%), which was also statistically at par with other treatments; whereas sunflower hybrid S-278 planted at nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 computed the lowest harvest index (31.00%). It is therefore suggested that sunflower hybrid S-278 should be cultivated at level of nutritional area of 60 x 20 cm2 to get maximum achene and stalk yield.
  Waqas Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , Muhammad salim , Iftikhar Ahmad , Muhammad Aqeel Sarwar , Muhammad Asif Shehzad and Muhammad Awais Rafiq
  The experiment was conducted to evaluate the growth and performance of oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on the different substrates. The substrates used in the study were T1 (100% C.W), T2 (50% C.W + 50% Banana leaves), T3 (75% C.W + 25% Banana leaves), T4 (50% C.W + 50% Maize leaves) and T5 (75% C.W + 25% Maize leaves). The numbers of days to complete the mycelium growth and days to reach harvesting stage were decreased in treatments T1 and T5 when compared to others treatments followed by T2. The numbers of matured mushrooms were greater in T1, T2 and T5. Total yield was significantly higher in T1 (125 g), T2 (121 g) and T5 (119.8 g) respectively. The maximum dry weight was produced by T1 (27.2 g) and T2 (25.0 g) respectively over others treatments. The nitrogen contents after harvesting of mushrooms were also affected. These results investigated that 100% cotton waste and 50% cotton waste + 50% Banana leaves are suitable for the cultivation of mushrooms as compared to other growing media.
  Rashid Mahmood , Muhammad Yaseen , Anser Ali , Javaid Iqbal , Safdar Hussain and M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh
  Calcium carbide is well known as a nitrification inhibitor and its role as a source of ethylene (C2H4), a potent plant growth regulator, is not thoroughly investigated. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of formulated calcium carbide with different doses of nitrogen fertilizer on nitrogen use efficiency, growth and yield of wheat. At the 1st step calcium carbide was formulated with polyethylene and plaster of paris and named as Matrix-I (21% calcium carbide, 58% polyethylene and 21% plaster of paris). Wheat cv. Inqulab-91 seeds were sown in pots and 5 plants were maintained. Calcium carbide was applied @ 0, 7.5, 15 and 22.5 mg/kg pot soil with 0, 30 and 60 mg N/kg soil. It was noted that nitrogen fertilizer application significantly enhanced almost all growth and yield parameters of wheat. It was also observed that matrix-I not only improved growth and yield parameters of wheat except plant height, which was reduced by CaC2 application, but also enhanced N uptake by different plant parts of wheat, when applied @ 15 mg CaC2 kg-1 soil at 8 cm soil depth. It was further noted that matrix-I better improved N use efficiency when applied with half recommended dose of N fertilizer than that of with full recommended N fertilizer rate.
  M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh , Riaz Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , M. Mudassar Maqbool , Anser Ali , M. Ishaque and Safdar Hussain
  Maize is a particular cereal crop which is more affected by variations in plant density than other members of the grass family, due to its low tillering ability, its monoecious floral organization and the presence of a brief flowering period. Different maize cultivars respond differently to K application under varying plant densities, due to different root/shoot ratio, growth rate, crowding stress tolerance, intra-specific competition between plants, K uptake and utilization. Maize cultivars have the ability to withstand high plant density due to more partitioning of assilimilates to shoot as compare to root, resulting in reduction of root/shoot ratio. K application reduces the percent of senescent stalks, lodging and increased crushing strength and rind thickness. There is general consensus that the soils of Pakistan have large capacity to provide K to crop under ordinary conditions, but the increase in the intensity of cropping, excessive use of the tube well water, introduction of the high yielding cultivars requiring high K, increasing use of N and P, could hasten the removal of K from the soils and imbalance the uptake of K in relation to other nutrients. Genotypic and crop species differences exist in response to soil and fertilizer K and non-yield traits such as stalk strength or product quality must be taken into account in K management decisions. K application not only increases grain yield, but also improves quality parameters. K application improves utilization of water, tolerance to drought through stomatal conductance, acceleration in photosynthesis process, water up take through roots. Its application improves leaf area, dry matter accumulation and other allometric parameters. K in combination with N has synergistic influence in uptake, translocation and utilization of nutrients for assimilation in growth and development of final grain yield and its contributing attributes. Normally K deficiency symptoms are usually not conspicuous although grain yield is abruptly decreased (called hidden hunger), but severe deficiency do express symptoms. It is therefore suggested that luxuriant application of K is inevitable for getting successful and maximum production from maize hybrids.
  Javaid Iqbal , Khizer Hayat , Safdar Hussain , Anser Ali and Muhammad Ahmad Alias Haji Ahmad Bakhsh
  A field experiment to investigate the effect of seeding rates and different levels of nitrogen on yield and yield components of wheat was conducted at Research Area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan. An approved cultivar Fareed-2006 was sown at seeding rates of 125, 150 and 175 kg/ha with five nitrogen levels of 0, 75, 100, 125 and 150 kg N/ha. Experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with split plot arrangement keeping seed rate in main plots and nitrogen levels in sub plots having three replications while, net plot size was 3 x 7 m2. Yield components such as plant height (cm), spike length (cm), number of spikelets/spike, number of grain/spike, 1000-grain weight (g), biological yield (kg/ha), grain yield (kg/ha) and harvest index were maximum at seeding rate of 150 kg/ha and minimum at seeding rate of 125kg/ha while number of tillers were maximum at seeding rate of 175 kg/ha and minimum at seeding rate of 125kg/ha. Similarly plant height, number of tillers m-2, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, number of grain/spike, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index were highest at nitrogen at 125 kg/ha and lowest at zero level of nitrogen. The interaction between seeding rates and nitrogen levels was found non significant for plant height, number of tillers m-2 spike length, number of spikelets/spike and 1000 grain weight while a significant interaction was noted for number of grain/ spike, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index and were maximum at seeding rate of 150 kg/ha with nitrogen level of 125 kg/ha.
  Anser Ali , Shahzad M.A. Basra , Safdar Hussain , Javaid Iqbal , M. Ahmad Alias Haji A. Bukhsh and Muhammad Sarwar
  Soil salinity is a huge problem negatively affecting physiological and metabolic processes in plant life, ultimately diminishing growth and yield. Salts taken up by the plants influence the plant growth by inducing adverse effects on different physiological and biochemical processes, including turgor, photosynthesis and enzymatic activities. Mechanisms responsible for reduction in plant growth under salt stress are: (1) Osmotic stress, (2) Specific ion toxicity, (3) Nutritional imbalance and (4) Oxidative stress. Different approaches such as introduction of new genes into genotypes responsible for salt tolerance, screening of large international collections and conduct of field trials on selected genotypes, conventional and non-conventional breeding methods and adequate regulation of mineral nutrients have been employed to enhance salinity tolerance in plants. Saline agriculture and exogenous application of mineral elements including Si has been professed as cost effective approach to ameliorate the salt stress in cereal crops like wheat. Si is categorized as a beneficial element in plant biology. It is unquestionably an important requirement for the normal growth of many plants and must be called as “Quasi essential”. Si amendment also plays a pivotal role to enhance chlorophyll content, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis and rigidity of plants under stressful conditions. There are different mechanisms by which Si mediates salinity tolerance in plants. It maintains the plant water status under saline conditions. It reduces uptake of Na+ by improving K+: Na+ and also alleviates the toxicity of other heavy metals. It application helps to improve the defensive system of the plants by producing anti-oxidants which in turn detoxify reactive oxygen species. Morphological and physiological improvements in plants were observed due to Si deposition within plant body under salt stress conditions. Silicon improves growth and dry matter production under salt stress conditions. Its application also enhances the crop performance against biotic stress. It is, therefore, suggested that supplemental application of Si must be included in salt stress alleviation management techniques.
  Safdar Hussain , Muhammad Ahmad , Saeed Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , Muhammad Nasir Subhani , Sajid Mahmood Nadeem , Sagheer Atta and Muhammad Ibrahim
  A field experiment was carried out at the Research area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan to measure the response of spring sowing sunflower to foliar application of abscisic acid (ABA) and potassium chloride under drought. In the experiment four irrigations by flooding (25 days after sowing, at bud initiation, at anthesis and at achene formation stage) were applied in control. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% KCl was made at anthesis stage of sunflower hybrids (NK-265 and SF-187) after skipping the irrigation. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation with no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better drought tolerance compared with SF-187 with foliar application of ABA as well as KCl because it showed improvement in growth and yield. Sunflower hybrids NK-265 had significantly increased achene yield and oil yield than SF-187. Drought stress at anthesis stage to sunflower hybrids showed decrease in agronomic parameters and foliar application of ABA as well as KCl under water deficits improved them. ABA as well as KCl application to sunflower hybrids at anthesis under drought improved achene oil content but decreased achene protein content. Exogenous application of ABA or KCl to NK-265 under drought showed more percent increased in achene yield and oil yield than SF-187 over no ABA and no KCl application. Foliar application of ABA as well as KCl on leaf score at anthesis stage was non-significant. It is, therefore, suggested that foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation, no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better improvement of drought tolerance by foliar application of ABA as well as KCl than SF-187 because it showed more improvement in growth and yield.
  Safdar Hussain , M. Farrukh Saleem , Javaid Iqbal , Sajid Mahmood Nadeem , Muhammad Ahmad and Muhammad Ibrahim
  Profitability assessment has prime importance for every crop husbandry practice and cultural operation. For this purpose, two field experiment was carried out to investigate the response of spring planted sunflower hybrids to different irrigation levels/schedules and foliar application of abscisic acid. Two studies were done at the Agronomic Research Farm, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan. In first study, three irrigation schedules viz. four irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation), three irrigations (25 DAS, flower initiation and achene formation) and three irrigations (25 DAS, bud initiation and achene formation) were used. Sunflower hybrid Hysun-33 was subjected to exogenous application of different concentrations (0, 5μm and 10μm) of ABA at bud initiation or at flower initiation. In second study, Three sunflower hybrids viz. DK-4040 (large stature), S-278 (medium stature) and SF-187 (short stature) were subjected to different irrigation regimes and ABA applications i.e., four irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation, flower initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at flower initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at flower initiation and achene formation and with ABA spray at bud initiation, three irrigations; 25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation and achene formation and with no ABA spray, three irrigations; (25 Days after Sowing (DAS), at bud initiation and achene formation and with ABA spray at flower initiation. In first study, It was observed that three irrigations (25 DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation), when 5μM ABA was applied at bud initiation under drought resulted in more profitable as compared to exogenous application of same concentration of ABA at flower initiation. So, it is suggested that three irrigations (25 DAS, at flower initiation and at achene formation), with foliar spray of 5μM ABA should be applied at bud initiation under drought. In second study, the dominance and marginal analysis about sunflower hybrids revealed that maximum Marginal Rate of Return (MRR) in sunflower hybrids was observed in T1 (control). Drought stress at bud initiation or at flower initiation reduced marginal rate of return. ABA application to DK-4040 under drought at bud initiation showed more increase in MRR than SF-187 and S-278.
 
 
 
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