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Articles by Jacques Genest
Total Records ( 4 ) for Jacques Genest
  Zuhier Awan , Dana Bailey , Anouar Hafiane and Jacques Genest
  Not available
  Ching Yin Lee , Isabelle Ruel , Maxime Denis , Jacques Genest and Robert S. Kiss
 

Background

Impairment of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) results in accumulation of sphingomyelin (SM) and cholesterol in late endosomes, the hallmarks of a lysosomal storage disease.

Objective

We describe cellular lipid metabolism in fibroblasts from two patients with novel compound heterozygote mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene manifesting as Niemann-Pick disease type B (NPB) and demonstrate mechanisms to overcome the storage defect.

Methods

Using biochemical assays and confocal microscopy, we provide evidence that accumulated lysosomal SM and cholesterol can be released by different treatments.

Results

Defective SMase activity in these fibroblasts results in a 2.5-fold increased cellular mass of SM and cholesterol, increased de novo endogenous cholesterol synthesis, and decreased cholesterol esterification, demonstrating impaired intracellular cholesterol homeostasis. Depletion of exogenous addition of cholesterol for 24 hours or addition of the cholesterol acceptor apolipoprotein A-I are sufficient to restore normal homeostatic responses. In an effort to correct the lysosomal storage phenotype of NPB, we infected the fibroblasts with a lentivirus expressing the phosphotyrosine binding domain of the adapter protein GULP (PTB-GULP). We have previously shown that expression of PTB-GULP in Chinese hamster ovary cells promotes intracellular cholesterol trafficking and ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux. We find that expression of PTB-GULP in NPB fibroblasts results in increased ABCA1 expression, increased cellular cholesterol efflux and lysosomal cholesterol redistribution, independent of the impaired SMase and cholesterol presence.

Conclusion

We provide extensive functional characterization of a novel compound heterozygote mutation and provide a novel functional mechanism to overcome lysosomal storage disease defects.

  Scott M. Grundyemail , Hidenori Arai , Philip Barter , Thomas P. Bersot , D. John Betteridge , Rafael Carmena , Ada Cuevas , Michael H. Davidson , Jacques Genest , Y. Antero Kesaniemi , Shaukat Sadikot , Raul D. Santos , Andrey V. Susekov , Rody G. Sy , S. LaleTokgozoglu , Gerald F. Watts and Dong Zhao
  An international panel of the International Atherosclerosis Society has developed a new set of recommendations for the management of dyslipidemia. The panel identifies non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol as the major atherogenic lipoprotein. Primary and secondary prevention are considered separately. Optimal levels for atherogenic lipoproteins are derived for the two forms of prevention. For primary prevention, the recommendations emphasize lifestyle therapies to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins; drug therapy is reserved for subjects at greater risk. Risk assessment is based on estimation of lifetime risk according to differences in baseline population risk in different nations or regions. Secondary prevention emphasizes use of cholesterol-lowering drugs to attain optimal levels of atherogenic lipoproteins.
  Houssein Hajj Hassan , Dana Bailey , Dong-Young Donna Lee , Iulia Iatan , Anouar Hafiane , Isabelle Ruel , Larbi Krimbou and Jacques Genest
  The molecular mechanisms underlying the apoA-I/ABCA1 endocytic trafficking pathway in relation to high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation remain poorly understood. We have developed a quantitative cell surface biotinylation assay to determine the compartmentalization and trafficking of apoA-I between the plasma membrane (PM) and intracellular compartments (ICCs). Here we report that 125I-apoA-I exhibited saturable association with the PM and ICCs in baby hamster kidney cells stably overexpressing ABCA1 and in fibroblasts. The PM was found to have a 2-fold higher capacity to accommodate apoA-I as compared with ICCs. Overexpressing various levels of ABCA1 in baby hamster kidney cells promoted the association of apoA-I with PM and ICCs compartments. The C-terminal deletion of apoA-I Δ(187–243) and reconstituted HDL particles exhibited reduced association of apoA-I with both the PM and ICCs. Interestingly, cell surface biotinylation with a cleavable biotin revealed that apoA-I induces ABCA1 endocytosis. Such endocytosis was impaired by naturally occurring mutations of ABCA1 (Q597R and C1477R). To better understand the role of the endocytotic pathway in the dynamics of the lipidation of apoA-I, a pulse-chase experiment was performed, and the dissociation (re-secretion) of 125I-apoA-I from both PM and ICCs was monitored over a 6-h period. Unexpectedly, we found that the time required for 50% dissociation of 125I-apoA-I from the PM was 4-fold slower than that from ICCs at 37 °C. Finally, treatment of the cells with phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C, increased the dissociation of apoA-I from the PM. This study provides evidence that the lipidation of apoA-I occurs in two kinetically distinguishable compartments. The finding that apoA-I specifically mediates the continuous endocytic recycling of ABCA1, together with the kinetic data showing that apoA-I associated with ICCs is rapidly re-secreted, suggests that the endocytotic pathway plays a central role in the genesis of nascent HDL.
 
 
 
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