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Articles by Jaakko Kaprio
Total Records ( 2 ) for Jaakko Kaprio
  Elina Sihvola , Richard J. Rose , Danielle M. Dick , Lea Pulkkinen , Mauri Marttunen and Jaakko Kaprio
  Aims  To explore the developmental relationships between early-onset depressive disorders and later use of addictive substances. Design, setting and participants  A sample of 1545 adolescent twins was drawn from a prospective, longitudinal study of Finnish adolescent twins with baseline assessments at age 14 years and follow-up at age 17.5 years. Measurements  At baseline, DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed with a professionally administered adolescent version of Semi-Structured Assessment for Genetics of Alcoholism (C-SSAGA-A). At follow-up, substance use outcomes were assessed via self-reported questionnaire. Findings  Early-onset depressive disorders predicted daily smoking [odds ratio (OR) 2.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.49–3.50, P < 0.001], smokeless tobacco use (OR = 2.00, 95% CI 1.32–3.04, P = 0.001), frequent illicit drug use (OR = 4.71, 95% CI 1.95–11.37, P = 0.001), frequent alcohol use (OR = 2.02, 95% CI 1.04–3.92, P = 0.037) and recurrent intoxication (OR = 1.83, 95% CI 1.18–2.85, P = 0.007) 3 years later. ORs remained significant after adjustment for comorbidity and exclusion of baseline users. In within-family analysis of depression-discordant co-twins (analyses that control for shared genetic and familial background factors), early-onset depressive disorders at age 14 predicted significantly frequent use of smokeless tobacco and alcohol at age 17.5. Conclusions  Our results suggest important predictive associations between early-onset depressive disorders and addictive substance use, and these associations appear to be independent of shared familial influences.
  Venla S. Laitala , Jaakko Kaprio and Karri Silventoinen

Background  Coffee is a highly popular drink associated with the pathogenesis of several diseases and the use of tobacco and alcohol. Considering the worldwide consumption, coffee has a substantial effect on individual wellbeing and public health. The role of genetic factors contributing to interindividual differences and their stability in coffee use is not well known. Aims  We analysed the heritability of coffee consumption and its stability in a large population-based sample of Finnish twins. Design  In 1975 and 1981 a postal questionnaire on coffee consumption was sent to all Finnish same-sex twin pairs born before 1958. Responses were obtained from 10 716 complete twin pairs in 1975 (3409 monozygotic and 7307 dizygotic), of whom 8124 also responded in 1981. The data were analysed using classical twin modelling based on linear structural equations. Findings  Additive genetic and unique environmental factors affected coffee drinking, whereas shared environmental factors did not show any effect. Heritability of coffee consumption, adjusted for age and sex, was estimated as 0.56 in 1975 and 0.45 in 1981. Coffee consumption showed a moderate correlation between these two time-points (r = 0.58 in men and 0.55 in women). Genetic factors affecting coffee consumption were stable: additive genetic correlations were 0.84 in men and 0.83 in women, whereas unique environmental correlations were moderate (0.45 and 0.36). Additive genetic factors had the highest contribution in young adults. Conclusions  Coffee consumption is affected by both additive genetic and unique environmental factors, each of which plays an almost equally important role. The long-term stability of coffee consumption is affected mainly by a stable set of additive genetic factors.

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