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Articles by J.U. Igwebuike
Total Records ( 5 ) for J.U. Igwebuike
  S.S. Diarra , B.A. Usman , J.U. Igwebuike and A.G. Yisa
  The ban of meat meal in poultry feed in most countries of the world and the high cost of fish meal have resulted in the increased use of plant products in poultry diets. However, phytate, which is the main storage form of phosphorus in plants, exerts antinutritional effects in poultry due to its ability to form insoluble complexes with essential minerals and proteins. In addition to these effects, the excretion of excess phosphorus into the environment is a serious cause of environmental pollution. Deactivation techniques such as boiling, fermentation, soaking and enzyme treatment have been used to reduce the level of phytate in plant materials. However, these techniques add to the cost and reduce the nutritional quality of the finished feed through the loss of nutrients. The modes of action of phytate in poultry, its distribution in plants, some common deactivation techniques and their limitations and certain intrinsic qualities of plants that can minimize the effects of phytate in the consuming animal are reviewed. The use of plant and animal breeding as an alternative to deactivation by physical and chemical methods and the use of enzymes are also highlighted.
  Kwari, I.D , S.S. Diarra , J.U. Igwebuike , I. Nkama , S. Issa , B.R. Hamaker , J.D. Hancock , M. Jauro , O.A. Seriki and I. Murphy
  The decrease in the production coupled with the numerous industrial uses make maize an expensive energy ingredient for poultry feeding, thus the need for research into cheaper alternatives. A 9-week experiment was conducted to assess the effects of feeding low tannin sorghum grain as a replacement for maize on the growth, haematology and carcass measurements of broiler chickens at the Poultry Unit of University of Maiduguri Livestock Research Farm, Maiduguri, Nigeria. A total of 300 day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 5 dietary treatments containing 3 replications of 20 chicks each. The diets contained sorghum grains at 0.00, 25.00, 50.00, 75.00, and 100% respectively as a replacement for maize. The starter and finisher diets were formulated to contain 23% and 20% crude protein respectively. The results of growth performance showed no superiority of maize over sorghum grain in terms of weight gain and feed conversion ratio, during both phases of growth (starter and finisher). Feeding sorghum grain had no adverse effect on the haematological parameters analyzed. The yields of carcass and cut-up parts were not adversely affected by the level of sorghum grain in the diet. Similarly, there was no adverse effect of feeding sorghum grain on the weight of vital organs (heart, liver and spleen). It was concluded that low tannin sorghum can completely replace maize in broiler chickens diets without compromising the growth, meat yield or the health of the birds. The substitution is beneficial as it reduces competition between poultry and man for the already scarce maize grain.
  C.I. Medugu , B. Saleh , J.U. Igwebuike and R.L. Ndirmbita
  Tannins are well known as anti-nutritive factors that hinder the utilization of feeds by monogastric animals especially poultry. Tannins depressed growth rate and feed utilization by forming complexes with proteins and carbohydrates or inhibition of digestive enzymes. Unlike ruminant animals, poultry do not have microbes in their gastrointestinal tract to detoxify or reduce the effect of tannins, but several methods have been used to reduce the tannin content of poultry feeds for better utilization. These methods are mainly physical and chemical in nature. The physical methods are cooking, dehulling, autoclaving, toasting / roasting and soaking, while the chemical methods include, use of wood ash, addition of tallow, use of tannin binding agents, use of enzymes, germination and urea treatment. The choice of method(s) will depend on their effectiveness in reducing tannin and the cost involved.
  A.A. Ngoshe , J.U. Igwebuike and S.B. Adamu
  A ten-week experiment was conducted to determine the haematological indices, serum chemistry and carcass characteristics, of growing rabbits fed graded levels of carrot (Daucus carota L) leaf meal. A total of 30 rabbits were randomly allocated in groups of six (6) to five dietary treatments with T1 (control), T2, T3, T4 and T5 containing 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% carrot leaf meal respectively. The experimental diets and clean drinking water were supplied to the rabbits ad libitum. The analyzed blood parameters showed significant (p<0.05) differences except for Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and White Blood Cell (WBC). Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and Haemoglobin (Hb) were generally higher in carrot leaf meal diets than the control diet (T1). Red Blood Cells (RBC) increased with increase in Carrot Leaf Meal (CLM) while Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) decreased with increase in Carrot Leaf Meal (CLM) compared to T1 (control diet). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) for serum biochemical indices among all treatments. The slaughter weight showed significant (p<0.05) differences among all treatments with rabbits on T2 (10% CLM) having the highest slaughter weight (1443.70 g) and T3 (20% CLM) having the highest dressed weight (1133.30 g). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences among the treatments for dressing percentage, head, skin, shoulder, loin, hind legs, liver, lungs and kidneys while the tail, feet, rack, heart and abdominal fat showed significant (p<0.05) differences. Based on these results, growing rabbits could tolerate up to 40% carrot leaf meal without adverse effects on their haematological parameters and carcass characteristics.
  G. Mohammed , S.B. Adamu , J.U. Igwebuike , N.K. Alade and L.G. Asheikh
  A ten-week trial was conducted to assess the digestibility and carcass component of growing rabbits fed graded levels of Bovine Blood-rumen Content Mixtures (BBRCM). The BBRCM were included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels in diets 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The BBRCM replaced maize and groundnut cake in the diets. Forty five cross bred rabbits (Dutch x New Zealand white) between 5 and 7 weeks of age were randomly allocated to the 5 dietary treatments in group of 9 and allowed unlimited access to feed and drinking water throughout the experimental period. The dry matter, ether extract and ash were similar (P>0.05) among the treatments while the crude protein, crude fibre and nitrogen-free extract were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments. The carcass component and organ weights expressed as percentage of slaughter weight were similar except dressing percentage, shoulder, loin, feet and small intestine which were significantly (P<0.05) different among the treatments. Therefore, diets containing up to 40% BBRCM could be tolerated by growing rabbits without adverse effect on their nutrient digestibility and carcass component.
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