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Articles by J.T. Ekanem
Total Records ( 4 ) for J.T. Ekanem
  A.Y. Faremi and J.T. Ekanem
  The effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) oil based diet on the management of Trypanosoma brucei infected rats was investigated. Prasitaemia was monitored and haematological and enzymatic studies were carried out on liver and blood of infected rats fed with diet formulated with black seed oil (treatment). Comparison was made with untreated infected rats and uninfected rats. The diet formulated with black seed oil extended the life span for 7 and 5 days for prophylactic and early stage feeding, respectively while the late stage feeding extended it by a day. The T. brucei-infection significantly (p<0.05) increased liver Glutamate Oxaloacetate Transaminase (GOT), Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) and Gamma Glutamyl Transaminase (GGT). Serum GOT and GPT specific activities were also significantly (p<0.05) increased. However serum GGT activity showed no significant (p<0.05) difference in all the rat groups. While haemoglobin concentration, white blood cells, red blood cells, pack cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin concentration and platelet were significantly (p<0.05) reduced, as observed in the control and late stage feeding, by the infection, prophylactic and early stage feeding with diet formulated with N. sativa oil significantly (p<0.05) improved the parameters towards those obtained in uninfected rats. We concluded that the N. sativa oil used in formulated diet could be involved in the improvement of the pathologic events observed in the T. brucei infected rats with prophylactic and early stage feeding.
  O.S. Adeyemi , M.A. Akanji , T.O. Johnson and J.T. Ekanem
  Iron is essential for living cells, including pathogenic microorganisms. So altered iron availability is often a key component in the host-pathogens interplay. Secondary to infection with pathogens, there is the activation of macrophages. Activated macrophages by action of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) produce Nitric Oxide (NO) as part of host defense mechanism. However, production of nitric oxide as obtained in Trypanosoma brucei infection strongly correlates with increased cellular iron. The expanded free iron pool may become available to invading parasites and thus promotes proliferation. Establishing the link between these two important molecules may offer new treatment strategies for African trypanosomosis in the face of increasing toxicity and parasite resistance to drugs currently available for treatment of African trypanosomosis.
  O.S. Adeyemi , M.A. Akanji and J.T. Ekanem
  Previous report from our laboratory demonstrated the activity of ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf against bloodstream forms of trypanosomes in an experimental infection. The present study investigated the mitigating effects of P. guajava leaf extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-induced changes in rat serum and tissue total protein, albumin, globulin, unconjugated bilirubin and total bilirubin. Our data revealed that trypanosome infection caused a rise in protein and globulin concentrations but reduced albumin concentrations were observed (p<0.05). There was also a significant increase in the serum and tissue bilirubin concentrations of the infected animals. In contrast, however, these biochemical alteration were less severe (p<0.05) in the treated group relative to the untreated counterparts. The data suggest the capacity of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava in downplaying the severity of the conditions usually associated with trypanosome infections.
  O.S. Adeyemi , M.A. Akanji and J.T. Ekanem
  Anaemia has been shown to be a cardinal feature in African trypanosomosis. This study evaluated the effects of the ethanolic extract of Psidium guajava leaf on some haematological indices in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Observations revealed significant (p<0.05) decreases in the values for Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Haemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cell (RBC) counts, Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV), Mean Concentration Haemoglobin Count (MCHC) in infected group relative to the treated as well as the uninfected animals. There was a significant (p<0.05) increase in the White Blood Cell (WBC) counts in infected animals when compared with the infected but treated animals. Also significant changes were observed for neutrophil in the infected animals compared to control and infected but treated groups (p<0.05). However, treatment with the ethanolic extract was able to significantly (p<0.05) improve the PCV, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCHC and neutrophil levels relative to the infected but untreated animals. Results demonstrate the anti-anaemic properties of the ethanolic extract of P. guajava in rats infected with T.b. brucei.
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