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Articles by J.P. Pandey
Total Records ( 13 ) for J.P. Pandey
  J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  Insects represent almost all territories of the earth and account around 75% of total animal population. It is still ambiguous that being a cold blooded/poikilothermic organism, without acquired immune responses, how do they survive in all geographical regions of the world? Probably, it indicates its very strong innate immune responses i.e., cellular and humoral. Insect blood cells or hemocytes are the main component of cellular immune responses. They are biochemically very sensitive towards change and are the primary target of cellular defence system of insects and have proven their ability to mediate diverse immuno-defence processes against invading pathogens and other adverse conditions/stresses i.e., temperature, starvation, photoperiod, humidity etc. Therefore, in the present review, effort has been made to correlate various responses of hemocytes against the change, in order to propose hemocyte-based model in the form of catalogue to discern the health status and its future application in applied and biomedical sciences. Since hemocytes respond very instantly against change hence, it is expected that by using hemocyte catalogue as a pointer impact of several biotic and abiotic factors can be evaluated. Outcome of the present review will summarize the hemocytic response against adversaries/change in the form of catalogue for its potential use in applied and biomedical fields.
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , A.K. Sinha , S. Salaj , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  The Antheraea mylitta produces tasar silk having massive demand in international market. Its rearing is carried out in outdoor conditions and during course of I to III instar rearing, a major proportion (20-30%) of larvae die due to vagaries of nature, pests and predators etc. which considerably affects the production and productivity. The solution to this major bottleneck of the silkworm rearing lies in evolving a suitable tasar silkworm feed (semi-synthetic diet) for young age tasar silkworm. In present study, comparative evaluation was done among semi-synthetic diet fed; fresh leaf fed indoor reared and fresh leaf fed in natural outdoor reared insects. Data revealed that young age survival and Effective Rate of Rearing (ERR) were higher when larvae were brushed on semi-synthetic diet in contrast to indoor rearing on fresh leaf and complete outdoor rearing. Semi-synthetic diet fed larvae showed greater body weight and their cocoon showed higher weight, shell weight and shell ratio than controls. Concentration of hemolymph protein was slightly higher in semi-synthetic diet fed than outdoor reared larvae whereas, significantly lower in case of indoor reared. Hemolymph protein SDS-PAGE analysis indicates that, the semi-synthetic diet fed larvae is closer to complete outdoor reared larvae than indoor reared. Comparative assessment of rearing, cocoon trait and biomolecular profile of A. mylitta it is assumed that tasar feed developed by our laboratory is novel. It will be helpful in minimizing impact of unfavorable condition during I crop rearing and maintenance of precious eco-races stocks to enhance productivity of tasar silk.
  J.P. Pandey , K. Jena , R.K. Tiwari and Alok Sahay
  Background and Objectives: Tasar silkworm is sericigenous insect which produces the unique quality silk. Loss occurring due to starvation is not quantified well at the level of immuno-oxidative and quantitative traits. Hence, the present study was designed to find out the effect of starvation on immuno-responses, oxidative damages, antioxidant defences and quantitative traits of tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta. Materials and Methods: The 6 days old V instar larvae were subjected to starvation stress and impact was evaluated on morphology, protein concentration, enzyme activity, immunological parameters, oxidative stress and cocoon characteristics. Results: A change in total hemocyte count and differential hemocyte count indicates its maintenance of homeostasis against starvation stress. Increased level of phenol oxidase and acid phosphatase was the sign of activation of intracellular phagocytic responses. Higher level of lipid peroxidation and total hydroperoxides signify the resultant oxidative stress in the starved specimen. Modulation of antioxidant enzymes indicates adaptive behaviour in the tissue against oxyradicals. Decreased levels of protein content, ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione shows their utilization during starvation stress. Conclusion: The data revealed that starvation modulates immunological responses, oxidative stress and hemocytic nuclear fragmentation as a result of cellular damage and thus adversely affect overall fitness and quantitative traits of tasar silkworm.
  B.C. Prasad , J.P. Pandey and A.K. Sinha
  Cocoonase which is secreted as a natural phenomenon has its direct utility in softening of cocoons for reeling without altering the very organic nature of tasar silk. In the present study, efforts have been made to comprehend and utilize cocoonase for its future use in cocoon cooking. The emerging moth gradually release cocoonase from galea of their mouth parts in anterior inner portion of the cocoon (peduncle region). After releasing adequate volume of enzyme (around 400-600 μL) for softening the peduncle region of cocoon, with the help of appendages emerging moth create outlet near the peduncle and escape from cocoon shell. Around 1000 mL cocoonase from 2000 eclosion stage A. mylitta have been collected and centrifuged in cold condition (4°C) at 10000 rpm to minimise the impurity. To maintain buffer conditions, cocoonase was collected in pre chilled Tris buffer pH 9.2 and stored at -4°C temperature for further use in cocoon cooking. When cocoons of A. mylitta (Daba ecorace) were subjected to initial water boiling at 100°C on leisurely flame for 30-40 min followed by cocoon soaking in cocoonase for 20-24 h at 37°C, the 80-90% softening of cocoon shell was found. Silk filament obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase maintains natural tasar silk colour, softness and structure. The 50-52% silk recovery was observer in cocoonase cocoon cooking. By centrifuging used reaction mixture at 9000 rmp in cold condition to remove impurities and adding 10-15% volume of fresh cocoonase in reaction mixture left over enzyme solution can be reused once. More study is required to get better cocoonase cooking efficiency and consistent cooking with higher or comparable silk recovery than the ruling practices.
  A.K. Singh , R.K. Tiwari , D.R. Kanaujia , J.P. Pandey and P. Mishra
  The importance of prawn as one of the beneficial food items for man because of having easily digestive high protein and iron and a low fat content is well known. The river Ganga having diversified fish fauna is considered to be the back bone of capture fishery in India. The present study was conducted on the growth, maturation and breeding behavior of Ganga river prawn, Macrobrachium gangeticum in the middle stretch of river Ganga in and around Varanasi, India. Specimens, 65-205 mm in size, were recorded during May to October. Percentage of males was found dominant in the month of May whereas females in months, July to October. Maximum males were recorded in the size range of 166-205 mm. Prawns started breeding in May which continued till October.
  J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  The red cotton bug, Dysdercus cingulatus, an important polyphagous pest, causes heavy loss to cotton and lady’s finger (bhindi) crops which badly affects the economy of poor farmers. In the present study, the impact of different concentrations of neem based insecticides (NBIs) on coupling, moulting, development, hemocyte, fecundity and egg-hatching of D. cingulatus was evaluated. Various concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.5%) and doses (2.5 to 20 μL) of NBIs viz. neemark, multineem and neemazal were prepared by diluting them in acetone were applied topically on the dorsum of the body of nymphs and adults and eggs of different age groups. NBIs causes developmental abnormalities such as prolongation of nymphal periods, ecdysial stasis, formation of adultoids and adults with varied degrees of wing deformities. The delay in moulting of treated nymphs is found concentration, dose and stage dependent. The application of NBIs on cephalic and thoracic regions and on ventral surface of insects showed more sensitivity than on abdominal region and dorsal surface. The NBIs application interrupted the coupling and cause lessening of fecundity and egg-hatching also. Among aforesaid NBIs, neemazal treatment was somewhat more effective. In addition, significant reduction in Total Hemocyte Count (THC) and deformities in hemocyte morphology were also observed in NBIs treated insects. It is assumed that the phenomena like metamorphic developments, coupling and fecundity are controlled by Juvenile Hormone (JH) via regulating the release of allatotropic factor from the brain and all these effects of NBIs are stage specific and concentration and dose dependent. NBIs induced changes in hemocyte contour might be also regulated by the brain hormone.
  J.P. Pandey , P.K. Mishra , Dinesh Kumar , A.K. Sinha , B.C. Prasad , B.M.K. Singh and T.K. Paul
  Generally, Antheraea mylitta cocoons cooking is carried out in alkaline condition by using soap, soda, H2O2, etc., which adversely affects the natural beautiful colour and softness of tasar silk. At eclosion stage, the emerging adults of tasar silkworm, A. mylitta exude a proteolytic enzyme ‘cocoonase’ which helps in softening anterior portion of cocoon shell and facilitates emergence of moths. Interestingly, cocoonase directly acts on the sericin protein without affecting the fibroin protein. It evidently indicates that, sericin is excellent natural substrate of cocoonase. This natural phenomenon engenders an idea to collect the cocoonase of A. mylitta and investigate its possible-efficacy in cocoon cooking. The SDS-PAGE analysis of freshly collected cocoonase (from emerging moths) showed molecular weight around 26 kDa. A simple technique for cocoonase collection from freshly pierced cocoons has been developed. Cooking of cocoon in cocoonase is concentration, pH, temperature and time dependent. Low concentration (1:15, 1:20, 1:25, 1:30 and 1:35) increases the cooking time and decreases the cooking efficiency. Higher concentration (1:5 dilutions) minimises the cocking time and increases the cooking efficiency. But cocoons were not fully reeled due to hardness in inner portion of the cocoons. Initial boiling of cocoon in water for 30 min followed by cooking in cocoonase (1:5) at 35-40°C temperature and 8.5 to 9.0 pH yielded comparatively better cooking efficiency with 50-55% silk recovery. Yarn obtained from the cocoons cooked in cocoonase preserve natural beautiful unique tasar silk colour, softness and lustre.
  D. Kumar , J.P. Pandey , J. Jain , P.K. Mishra and B.C. Prasad
  In the present study, quantitative and qualitative changes in protein profile of different tissue of larvae, pupae, adult and eggs of Tasar silkworm Antheraea mylitta Drury was investigated. Stage and age dependent variation in protein concentration and SDS-PAGE protein profile of 36 and 64 kDa protein was observed in different tissue. The concentration of protein was recorded higher in eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth and significant variation was also noticed in normal and depressed eggs. Interestingly, substantial changes in SDS-PAGE protein profile was observed in normal and depressed eggs and eggs laid by fresh moth than 3 days old moth. Haemolymph and midgut protein concentration was recorded higher in 3rd and 5th instar feeding larvae and in 4th instar mature larvae. Concentration of protein in the haemolymph of pupae before the brain window becomes opaque was higher in both the sexes than opaque stage. Fat body protein concentration in larvae showed increasing trend from 3rd to 5th instar larvae and it was higher in pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and fresh moth. In addition, higher protein concentration was recorded in gonads of pupae after the brain window becomes opaque and in reproductive organs of fresh moth. Present findings would promote to further understand the precise reason for depression of eggs and changes in protein profile in different tissue of A. mylitta.
  J.P. Pandey , Dinesh Kumar , Sony K. Roy , P.K. Mishra , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  Tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury DABA-ecorace is commercially exploited in India for tasar silk production. Generally, its cocoons used to preserve in outdoor and indoor conditions. But in recent past, due to global warming, tasar silk zone day time temperature (May-June) shoots up and it goes up to 35 to 45°C or even more. It cause adverse impact on the survival of tasar silkworm pupae and invite heavy loss to the tasar silk industry. In the present study, hemocyte and enzyme-based methods have been used to evaluate the impact of outdoor and indoor seed cocoon preservation on A. mylitta pupae. Interestingly, differences in Total Hemocyte Count (THC), hemocyte contour/morphology, protein concentration, fat body and hemolymph acid phosphatase (Acp) activity of outdoor and indoor preserved pupae have been observed. Marked variation in THC was observed among high, low and median weight pupae. Although, no significant variation was observed in THC of indoor and outdoor preserved female pupae but significant difference was found in male pupae of both the preservation conditions. Differential profile of hemocytes was differing in outdoor and indoor conditions with change in cell-contour. Elevation in immune cell “plasmatocytes (PLs)” numbers was recorded in indoor preserved cocoon. Acp activity in fat body of indoor preserved pupae was higher than outdoor but reverse trend was found in hemolymph. Activity profile Acp vary in male and female with higher, lower and median weight pupae. Protein concentration in hemolymph of outdoor preserved pupae was more in comparison to indoor but this trend was found usually reverse in fat body. In addition, less protein concentration was recorded in fat body and hemolymph of male pupae in contrast to female. It is expected that, based on hemocyte and enzyme-based method impact of cocoon preservation conditions on A. mylitta pupae can be evaluated/observed.
  J.P. Pandey , R.K. Tiwari and Dinesh Kumar
  Total and differential haemocyte counts following chilling, heating and ganglionectomy were studied in fifth instar larvae of Danais chrysippus. Chilling caused a decline in the number of haemocytes reaching a lowest level of about 57% in 48 h old larvae. Heating on the other hand elicited an increase of blood cells up to 30-50%. The ganglionectomy up to second abdominal ganglion caused a gradual reduction in total haemocyte count up to 93%. The relative percentage of different haemocyte types showed much variation. While prohaemocyte percentage increased both after heating and ganglionectomy but decreased after chilling; the percentage of plasmatocytes on the other hand declined in all experimental stages. The other cell types viz., granulocytes, spherulocytes, adipohaemocytes and oenocytoids also showed some variation in their counts. In addition, the aforesaid stresses adversely affected the structure of haemocytes causing their vacuolization, breaking of plasma membrane and fragmentation of nucleus and cell organelles leading to cell death. These stresses are thought to affect haemocytes through Median Neurosecretory Cells (MNSCs) mediated hormonal disturbance.
  Suyog Pandey , J.P. Pandey and R.K. Tiwari
  The lemon butterfly, Papilio demoleus whose larvae are serious pest of citrus plant, causes potential threat to the citrus industry. Citrus trees are excellent source of vitamins and its fruits utilized directly by human being. Therefore, P. demoleus should be controlled in eco-friendly manner. Keeping hazardous effects of synthetic insecticides in mind the natural bio-pesticides are being tested here with reference to insects molting and hemocyte counts. In the present study, leaf extracts of Eucalyptus globulus and Ageratum conyzoides and clove extract of Allium sativum were evaluated for their bio-efficacy against V instar larvae of P. demoleus. The leaf and clove extract of aforesaid plants were prepared by macerating and extracting them in small quantity of Double Distilled Water (DDW). Total Haemocyte Count (THC) and Differential Hemocyte Count (DHC) were conducted and results revealed significant reduction in THC as well as great deal of variation in relative percentage of hemocytes in comparison to their control. The abnormalities in morphogenetic development were exhibited by the production of larval-pupal intermediates, pharate adults and different degrees of wing abnormalities in imagoes. Plant extracts also caused reduction in larval body weight showing their anti-feedant properties. Relatively more significant reduction in body weight was found in Eucalyptus globulus treated larvae. These results revealed that the botanicals used in this study are very economical and eco-friendly to non-target organisms and human being. But these botanicals/bio-pesticides are hazardous to lemon butterfly thus challenging its pest status in the crop field.
  J.P. Pandey , R.K. Tiwari and Dinesh Kumar
  The bioefficacy of some neem-based insecticides (NBIs) (neemazal, multineem and nimbecidine) was evaluated using fifth instar larvae and pupae of Danais chrysippus. All the NBIs caused reduction in total haemocyte count and much variation in their normal profile. This caused disintegration of haemocytes leading to reduction in immune response. In addition, the NBIs produced ecdysial stasis thereby resulting in the larval-pupal intermediates, pharate adults and deformed imagoes. A reduction in body weight of treated larvae was recorded too.
  Dinesh Kumar , J.P. Pandey , Ragini , A.K. Sinha and B.C. Prasad
  The tropical tasar silkworm, Antheraea mylitta Drury is sericigenous wild insect has own dictation on its life cycle stages. Being a poikilothermic organism, temperature decides the fate of A. mylitta during embryonic and postembryonic development. Silkworm eggs (seed) is very vital input of tasar silk industry but due to global warming elevation in temperature with less humidity during 1st crop grainage of A. mylitta negatively affects the quality and quantity of egg hatching. In the present study, impact of temperature stress on embryonic development and biochemical profile of A. mylitta eggs has been investigated. Data reveals that considerable alteration in temperature used to hamper the protein and carbohydrate profile which leads to affect the embryonic development and hatching of eggs. Fluctuation in temperature with low humidity causes delay in egg hatching and decrease in hatching percentage. But higher temperature with low humidity during embryonic development of eggs resulted in death of embryo during early age. The depressed eggs with fully formed dead larvae inside the eggs were found after high temperature stress. The concentration of the protein and carbohydrate steadily decreases during subsequent larval differentiation until hatching. Protein and carbohydrate profile also confirm the death of embryo during early stage. In un-hatched eggs, due to less metabolized utilization higher concentration of these nutrients are available. Our initial information indicates that protein and carbohydrate profile can be utilized as biochemical marker for testing appropriate embryonic development and hatchability of eggs.
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