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Articles by J.O. Ayo
Total Records ( 14 ) for J.O. Ayo
  C. Uchendu , S.F. Ambali , J.O. Ayo , K.A.N. Esievo , I.O. Lasisi and Y.L. Surakat
  Induction of oxidative stress is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC), an antioxidant molecule on alterations in biochemical changes evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in Wistar rats. Twenty-eight young adult male Wistar rats used for the study were divided into 4 groups of 7 animals each. Group I was administered S/oil (2 mL kg-1) while group II was given ALC (300 mg kg-1). Group III was administered CPF (8.5 mg kg-1) while group IV was pretreated with ALC (300 mg kg-1) and then administered CPF (8.5 mg kg-1), 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally via gavage for 4 weeks. The sera obtained from the blood samples were analysed for concentrations of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯), total proteins, albumin, globulin glucose, urea, creatinine and activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. The liver was also examined for malonaldehyde concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The result shows that ALC pretreatments attenuate CPF-evoked alterations in biochemical parameters apparently due to its antioxidant properties.
  J.O. Ayo and V.O. Sinkalu
  Experiments were performed with the aims of determining the fluctuation in rectal temperature (RT) of Shaver Brown pullets and the effect of vitamin C or Ascorbic Acid (AA) administration on the fluctuation during the hot-dry season in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. The RT of 25 experimental and 25 control pullets were measured every hour from 06:00 to 19:00 hours for three days, three days apart, with a standard clinical thermometer. The experimental pullets were individually administered orally with AA in drinking water at the dose of 52 mg kg -1 dissolved in sterile water, while the control pullets were given only normal water, without AA addition. In experimental pullets, the lowest hourly RT of 41.0±0.1 °C was obtained at 06:00 hours, while the highest value of 41.6±0.0 °C was recorded at 14:00 and 15:00 hours (p<0.001). In control pullets, the RT rose significantly from 41.0±0.1 °C at 06:00 hours to maximum values, ranging from 41.5±0.0 °C to 41.8±0.0 °C at 11:00 to 17:00 hours (p<0.001). There was a positive and significant (p<0.05) correlation between hours of the day and RT values in experimental (r = 0.589) and control (r = 0.542) pullets. The overall RT of pullets administered with AA was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of control pullets (41.3±0.1°C and 41.5±0.1 °C, respectively). The minimum and maximum hourly RTs of experimental pullets were 40.3±0.1 and 42.0±0.0 °C, respectively, while those of control pullets were 40.7±0.1 and 41.9±0.0 °C, respectively (p<0.001). The dry-bulb temperature was negatively correlated with RT in experimental pullets (r = -0.240, p>0.05); but in control pullets, the relationship was positive and significant (r = 0.655, p<0.05). The pullets administered with AA had consistently lower RT values than those of control pullets. It is concluded that AA administration, by modulating the body temperature of pullets during the hot hours of the day, ameliorated the thermally stressful effect of the hot-dry season. This mechanism may be partly responsible for AA-induced enhancement of productivity and health of pullets during the season.
  V.O. Sinkalu and J.O. Ayo
  Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of co-administration of vitamins A and C on rectal temperature (RT) fluctuations in pullets during the hot-dry season. RTs of 29 experimental and 20 control Black Harco pullets were measured hourly for three days, three days apart, from 06:00 to 19:00 h with a standard digital clinical thermometer. The experimental pullets were administered individually with vitamins A and C orally at a daily dose of 1,200IU/kg and 50mg/kg, respectively. The control pullets were given only water, without the addition of vitamins A and C. The lowest hourly RT of 40.96±0.03oC was obtained in experimental pullets at 06:00 h, while the highest value of 41.28±0.02oC was recorded at 16:00 h (P < 0.001). In control pullets, the RT rose significantly from 40.97±0.05oC at 06:00 h to the maximum value of 41.61±0.03oC at 15:00 h (P < 0.001). There was a positive and very highly significant (P < 0.001) correlation between hours of the day and RT values obtained both in experimental (r = 0.834) and control (r = 0.884) pullets. The overall RT of pullets administered with vitamins A and C was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of control pullets (41.16±0.02oC and 41.39±0.05oC, respectively). The dry-bulb temperature was significantly (P < 0.001) and positively correlated with RT in both experimental (r = 0.936) and control (r = 0.969) pullets. The pullets administered with vitamins A and C had consistently lower RT values than those of control pullets, especially during the hot hours of the day, from 13:00-18:00 h, with mean values fluctuating between 41.19±0.02oC and 41.28±0.02oC. The RT of both experimental and control pullets showed distinct diurnal fluctuations. It is concluded that vitamins A and C, by reducing the RT values, ameliorated the thermally stressful effect of the hot-dry season and this mechanism may be partly involved in the enhancement of poultry productivity and health during the season by antioxidant vitamins.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and T. Dzenda
  The objective of this study was to determine gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown breeder cocks. Five cocks, each of Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red, were slaughtered after one year of evaluation of seminal characteristics. To determine testicular integrity of the breeder cocks, left and right testes from each slaughtered samples were carefully dissected out of the abdomen and marked accordingly. Each testis weight, length and volume were measured, followed by the determination of gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves. The mean testicular lengths for Shikabrown White were 4.22 ± 0.03cm and 3.98 ± 0.04cm for the right and left testes, respectively; while that for Shikabrown Red were 4.40 ± 0.1cm and 4.44 ± 0.09cm for right and left testes, respectively. The mean testicular weight of Shikabrown Red cocks was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of Shikabrown White cocks (12.39 ± 0.76g and 10.23 ± 0.25g, respectively). The mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves (x 109 per ml testis) for the right testes in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red cocks were 57.6 ± 5.6 and 103.2 ± 22.3 (P < 0.01), respectively, while those of the left testes were 84.8 ± 18.2 and 209.4 ± 95.1, respectively. The left mean gonadal sperm/spermatid reserves in Shikabrown Red strain was statistically (P < 0.01) higher than Shikabrown White strain. This study suggests: I) that there are strain differences in testicular function of the breeder cocks and ii) that there are differences in spermatogenic capacity between the right and left testes in breeder cocks.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , P.I. Rekwot , J.O. Ayo and T. Dzenda
  The seasonal influence on the seminal characteristics of Shikabrown breeder cocks was evaluated weekly during the three seasons in Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria. Semen samples were analyzed by gross and routine laboratory methods for volume, motility, concentration, colour, percent dead and percent total abnormality. The highest volume and concentration values of 0.50 ± 0.03ml and 3.60 ± 0.16x109/ml, respectively, were obtained from Shikabrown White breeder cocks during the rainy season, while the lowest volume and concentration values of 0.39 ± 0.01ml and 2.90 ± 0.04x109/ml, respectively, were obtained for the same strain during the hot-dry season. Spermatozoa motility of 80.5 ± 1.1% and 82.3 ± 0.5% were obtained during the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively, in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm values of 4.6 ± 8.3% and 6.40 ± 0.5% were recorded during the rainy and hot-dry seasons, respectively; which were lower (P < 0.05) than the value of 9.0 ± 1.0% obtained during the harmattan season in Shikabrown White breeder cocks. For the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks, spermatozoa volume and concentration were 0.44 ± 0.02ml and 3.44 ± 0.05x109/ml; while 0.45 ± 0.05ml and 3.53 ± 0.09x109/ml.were recorded for the harmattan and rainy seasons, respectively. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 0.30 ± 0.02ml and 2.50 ± 0.08x109/ml obtained for volume and concentration, respectively, during the hot-dry season in the Shikabrown Red breeder cocks. Percent dead sperm in the Shikabrown Red cocks during the rainy and hot-dry seasons (5.50 ± 1.0% and 6.20 ± 1.2%, respectively) were not statistically (P < 0.05) significant, but were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than the value of 8.40 ± 0.5% obtained during the harmattan season. The ejaculate trait for percent abnormality in Shikabrown Red cocks was not significantly different from that of the Shikabrown White strains. In conclusion, spermatozoa were recovered throughout the year and optimal gamete quality was observed during the rainy and harmattan seasons.
  J.A. Obidi , B.I. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot and S.J. Abdullahi
  The influence of timing of artificial insemination on fertility and hatchability of breeder hens was carried out by inseminating breeder hens at 10:00 hr and 15:00 hr with pooled semen from Shikabrown White breeder cocks for four weeks. Fertile eggs were collected two days after the first insemination and stored at a temperature of 16oC for seven days before incubation. Fertility was higher (P < 0.05) in hens inseminated at 10:00 hr when sperm quality was optimal. The fertility values of 82.1 ± 1.0% and 85.0 ± 2.3% obtained in Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 10:00 hr insemination were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 76.0 ± 3.2% and 78.3 ± 2.5% recorded at 15:00 hr insemination in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively. The hatchability values of 72.5 ± 2.8% and 67.0 ± 3.3% were obtained for Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for the morning hour insemination. These values were significantly (P < 0.01) different from the corresponding values of 65.0 ± 1.0% and 63.0 ± 1.1% obtained in the Shikabrown White and Shikabrown Red hens, respectively, for 15:00 hr insemination. The results showed that timing of artificial insemination influence fertility in Shikabrown breeder hens and this is probably mediated by meteorological factors. In conclusion for better fertility of Shikabrown hens, insemination should be carried out at 10:00 hr.
  A.Y. Adenkola and J.O. Ayo
  Experiments were performed on 40 indigenous turkeys with the aim of investigating, fluctuations in their rectal temperature (RT) and the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) on during the hot-dry season. Twenty turkeys which served as experimental birds were administered AA orally at the dose of 52 mg kg-1, while the remaining 20 turkeys which served as control were given ordinary water. Measurements of RT were taken for 3 days, one week apart and every hour from 06:00-19:00 h. The results showed that RT values in both experimental and control turkeys significantly (p<0.01) fluctuated with the hours of the day (r = 0.614, 0.612, respectively) and the dry-bulb temperature (r = 0.794, 0.928, respectively). The RT value of 41.2±0.03oC recorded in experimental turkeys was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the corresponding value of 41.5±0.03 °C obtained in control turkeys. The results demonstrated that AA significantly reduced RT values in experimental turkeys. In conclusion, AA administration may be of value in turkeys subjected to unavoidable stressful conditions during the hot-hours of the day.
  T. Dzenda , J.O. Ayo , C.A.M. Lakpini and A.B. Adelaiye
  Adult African giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) were live-trapped in Zaria, Nigeria over a period of three years, cutting across all the seasons of each year. They were sexed and weighed immediately after capture, with the aim of determining changes in their live weights with seasons and sex. The overall live weight (Mean±SEM) of the African giant rats was 1.21±0.01 kg (n = 363). The live weight of African giant rats captured during the rainy season (1.17±0.02 kg) was significantly lower than that during the harmattan (1.25±0.02 kg; p<0.01) and hot-dry (1.23±0.02 kg, p<0.05) seasons. The male live weight of 1.28±0.01 kg was significantly higher (p<0.0001) than that of the female (1.14±0.01 kg). Male-biased sexual size dimorphism was observed during all the seasons, but was highest during the hot-dry season. The seasonal variation in live weight may be because food was more available in the wild during the harvest (dry) seasons (harmattan and hot-dry seasons) than the planting (rainy) season. The relatively low ambient temperature and relative humidity of the harmattan season was more favourable to growth, which may account for the higher live weight recorded during the season. The sex variation in live weight may be as a result of differential growth rate/time between the sexes. In conclusion, the African giant rats are lightest during the rainy season and the live weight of the male is higher than that of the female regardless of the season.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , A.A. Adeniyi , C.G. Onyeanusi , J.O. Ayo and C.S. Ibe
  A morphometric study was carried out on the kidney of the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean live weight of the Wistar rat was found to be 140.625±3.078 g. The average kidney weight was 0.605±0.012 g. The right kidney, with a mean weight of 0.632±0.012 g, was significantly (p<0.05) heavier than the left (0.596±0.022 g). The male kidneys were larger than those of the female and the values obtained were 0.633±0.091 g and 0.572±0.132 g, respectively. The relative thickness of the medulla was 5.6. This value (5.6) indicates a high index for the length of the loop of Henle, which acts as a counter current multiplier system and directly increases the ability of the kidney to produce hypertonic urine. This high index thus suggests that the Wistar rat is anatomically adapted within its urinary system (kidney) for water conservation. Furthermore, the present study has provided a baseline morphometric data on the kidney of the Wistar rat in the Northern Savannah zone of Nigeria.
  B.I. Onyeanusi , A.A. Adeniyi , J.O. Ayo , C.S. Ibe and C.G. Onyeanusi
  A comparative study was carried out on the urinary system of the African Giant Rat (AGR) and the Wistar Rat (WR) using standard laboratory procedures. The mean liveweight of the AGR and WR were 863.590±33.740 and 140.625±6.078 g, respectively. The mean kidney weight of the male and female AGR and WR were 2.119±0.062, 2.053±0.009, 0.633±0.091 and 0.572±0.132 g, respectively. It was observed that the mean kidney weight in the male was higher than that of the female in both AGR and WR but the difference was not significant (p>0.05). The mean weight of the right kidney was heavier than that of the left kidney in both the AGR and WR. The mean weight of the right kidney of the AGR was 2.21±0.051 g while, the left was 2.00±0.055 g. The mean weight of the right kidney in the WR was 0.633±0.012 g while, the left was 0.596±0.022 g. No significant difference (p>0.05) was obtained in the thickness of the bladder and its length in both AGR and WR but there was a high significant difference (p<0.001) between the ureter length of the AGR and the WR. The length of the right ureter was longer than the left and the female had a slightly longer ureter than the male in both rats. The relative thickness of the medulla, which is an indicator of the length of the loop of Henle, was 4.297 in the AGR while, that of the WR was 5.6. The higher relative thickness of the medulla (5.6) signifies that the kidney of the WR has an anatomical adaptation for the concentration of urine and thus, better conservation of water in the arid zone while, the lower relative thickness of the medulla (4.2) of the AGR suggests lack of appropriate anatomical adaptation in the kidney for conservation of water. The study has also provided a baseline morphometric data on the urinary system of both the AGR and WR in the Northern Guinea Savannah zone of Nigeria.
  Idris Sherifat Banke , Ambali Suleiman Folorunsho , Onukak Charles , Mohammed M. Suleiman and J.O. Ayo
  Background: Exposure to chlorpyrifos have been shown to induce short term sensorimotor changes in rats, which has been linked to oxidative stress, cypermethrin also induces oxidative stress. This study was therefore aimed at evaluating the ameliorative effects of melatonin on sensorimotor changes induced by co-administration of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Fifty adult male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of ten rats each. Group I and II were given distilled water and soya oil (2 mL kg–1), respectively. Group III was administered with melatonin at 0.5 mg kg–1 only. Group IV was administered with CPF (8 mg kg–1 to 1/10th LD50) and CYP (30 mg kg–1 to 1/10th LD50) group V was administered with CPF (8 mg kg–1 to 1/10th LD50), CYP (30 mg kg–1 to 1/10th LD50) and 30 min later melatonin (0.5 mg kg–1). The regimens were administered orally by gavage once daily for 12 weeks. Sensorimotor performances were determined at intervals during the study thereafter the brain was evaluated for malonaldehyde and acetylcholinesterase concentrations. Results: There was reduced loco motor activity, decreased grip time, impaired efficiency of locomotion, reduced inclined plane performance, increased brain malondialdehyde concentration and decreased brain acetylcholinesterase concentration in the chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin treated group which were all ameliorated by melatonin pre-treatment. Conclusion: The study showed that treatment with melatonin ameliorated the sensorimotor deficits induced by sub-chronic co-administration of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin.
  S. Danbirni , A.K.B. Sackey , J.O. Ayo , E.K. Bawa , A.C. Kudi , S.O. Okaiyeto and S.B. Pewan
  This study was carried out to detect exposure to Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) in four dairy herds consisting of a total of 200 cows, aged between 21/2-10 years. The cows were of various breeds, namely: white Fulani (Bunaji), crosses of white Fulani and sokoto gudali, white Fulani and Friesian, semi-intensively managed and producing milk for yoghourt production in Kaduna and environs. Anigen® Rapid Bovine Tuberculosis Antibody Test (IQRT) specific for M. bovis antibodies in sera of cows were used in this study. The result showed 17.5% (35/200) positive for antibodies to M. bovis. Fresh milk from cows positive to the IQRT and also packed yoghourts made from milk obtained from those positive and negative cows in the sampled dairy herds were collected and subjected to Ziehl-Neelsen Stain (ZNS) in order to detect bacilli in fresh milk and packed yoghourts. The result obtained 17.1% (6/35) of these cows were shedding the bacilli in fresh milk while no bacillus detected in the packed yoghourts. The result showed that IQRT was sensitive in detecting M. bovis before they start shedding in milk while ZNS technique was found to be potentially useful in detecting M. bovis infected lactating cows that are shedding the bacilli in milk. This study has shown that apparently healthy lactating cows may shed viable M. bovis in milk there by posing a serious public health problem where unpasteurized milk is consumed. This calls for the need to ensure that only non-positive milking cows are milked for human consumption and the IQRT is the best of choice to determine that.
  I.E. Ajayi , S.A. Ojo , B.I. Onyeanusi , B.D.J. George , J.O. Ayo , S.O. Salami and C.S. Ibe
  The study was carried out to elucidate on the macroscopic structure of the medulla oblongata of the grasscutter. A total of ten matured, apparently, healthy African grasscutters were used to investigate the morphologic and morphometric features of the medulla oblongata. The mean body weight and brain weight were 2600±194.95 g and 12.15±0.48 g, respectively. The ratio of the brain to body weight was approximately 1:214. The mean weight of the medulla oblongata was found to be 1.104±0.10 g and this accounted for about 9% of the total brain weight. The mean lengths of the whole brain and medulla oblongata were 4.945±0.091 and 1.376±0.082 cm, respectively. The gross anatomical features of the medulla oblongata were typical of that observed in terrestrial mammals however slight structural differences were observed.
  M.U. Kawu , L.S. Yaqub , J.O. Ayo , P.I. Rekwot , B. Habibu , M. Tauheed , M.M. Suleiman , M. Shittu , T. Aluwong , H.I. Isa and A. Abdullahi
  The aim of this study was to evaluate the features of induced abortion and post-abortion oestrous cycles pattern following treatment with prostaglandin F (PGF) in Sokoto Red (SR) goats. Twelve apparently healthy goats made up of 6 pregnant and 6 non-pregnant (cycling) does were used for the study. Each doe was given a single intramuscular injection of 7.5 mg PGF. All the 6 pregnant does treated with PGF aborted within 72.0±12.4 h post-treatment. Of the 6 does that aborted, 5 (83.3%) showed oestrus subsequently while 4 (66.7%) out of the 6 non-pregnant does were induced to oestrus. Time interval to induced oestrus was 129.6±36.1 and 50.0±11.5 h for the aborted and non-pregnant does, respectively. Mean duration of oestrus for the aborted and non-pregnant does was 46.9±9.6 and 38.7±4.3 h, respectively. The first and second post-abortion oestrous cycle lengths were 6.5±0.5 and 12.5±8.5 days, respectively. While the first and second post-treatment cycle lengths in the non-pregnant does was 22.5±1.2 and 21.3±0.3 days, respectively. It is concluded that a single dose of 7.5 mg PGF is sufficient to induce abortion and oestrus simultaneously in SR goats. However, the post-abortion cycles are short.
 
 
 
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