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Articles by J.N. Broomhead
Total Records ( 2 ) for J.N. Broomhead
  S.O. Ogunbo , J.N. Broomhead , D.R. Ledoux , A.J. Bermudez and G.E. Rottinghaus
  Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the individual and combined effects of fusaric acid (FA) and T-2 toxin (T-2) in broiler chicks and turkey poults. In each experiment, 80 day-old birds were allotted randomly to a 2×2 factorial arrangement with treatments of 0 and 250 mg FA/kg feed and 0 and 4 mg T-2/kg feed. Diets were fed to 4 pen replicates of 5 birds each for 21 days. Feed intake and body weight gain of poults were reduced (p<.05) by the T-2 and the FA\T-2 combination diets. Poults fed T-2 and the FA\T-2 combination diets were also less efficient (p<.05) in converting feed to gain. There were no treatment effects (p>.05) on performance of broilers. Poults fed FA and the FA\T-2 combination diets had increased (p<.05) heart weights, whereas chicks fed FA and the FA\T-2 combination diets had increased (p<.05) kidney weights. Poults fed the combination FA\T-2 diet had higher (p<.05) serum AST values compared to all other treatments. Poults fed the T-2 and FA\T-2 combination diets had increased (p<0.05) serum Na but reduced (p<0.05) serum Mg. Uric acid concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in chicks fed the FA and FA\T-2 combination diets. Oral lesions were present in chicks (68%) and poults (100%) fed T-2 with or without FA. Data indicate no toxic synergy when FA and T-2 were fed simultaneously to broilers and turkeys at these dietary concentrations.
  A. Jasek , X. Li , H. Xu , R.M. Raab , J.N. Broomhead and J.T. Lee
  Background and Objectives: An experiment (phase 1) was conducted to evaluate the retained activity of a maize-derived, recombinant carbohydrase enzyme (AC1) when exposed to heat during the pelleting process and homogeneity when mixed into mash diet. A second experiment (phase 2) was conducted to evaluate the effects of increasing AC1 concentrations on male broiler growth performance and ileal nutrient digestibility. Materials and Methods: A total of 728 broilers were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments with each treatment consisting of 13 replicates with eight Cobb 500 male broilers. The experimental design included a positive control (PC), a reduced energy negative control (NC, comprising the PC less 132 kcal kg1) diet and five additional treatments with increasing dose of AC1 (5, 50, 100, 250 and 500 U glucanase kg1) added to the NC diet. Birds were fed a starter ration for the duration of the study (16 d). Average body weight (BW), mortality adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed consumption (FC) were determined on 16 d of age. At the conclusion of the experiment, all birds from each replicate pen were necropsied and ileal contents pooled within replicate to determine ileal digestibility of energy (IDE) and nitrogen (IDN). Results: In Phase 1, the recovery of ß-glucanase activity in the pellets (in relation to mash feed) were 111, 83 and 82% when pelleted at 80, 85 and 90°C, respectively. The coefficient of variation of glucanase recovered when AC1 was mixed into feed and was less than 10%. In Phase 2, the inclusion of AC1 at 100 and 250 U glucanase kg1 increased (p<0.01) BW compared to both the PC and NC fed broilers. This elevation in BW was related to an increase (p<0.01) in FC. As expected, reducing energy in the NC diet decreased (p<0.01) IDE value of the feed as compared to the PC diet. The addition of AC1 to supply ≥100 U glucanase kg1 increased (p<0.01) IDE compared to the NC diet and restored IDE equivalent (p>0.05) to the PC diet. Regression analysis confirmed linear and quadratic increases in IDE and IDN with the addition of AC1. Conclusion: These data demonstrate the thermal stability of maize-derived, recombinant AC1 and that increasing levels positively influences nutrient digestibility leading to significant improvements in broiler performance.
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