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Articles by J.L. Grimes
Total Records ( 6 ) for J.L. Grimes
  A.A. Santos Jr , P.R. Ferket , J.L. Grimes and F.W. Edens
  The adverse effects of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) on turkeys fed wheat-based diets may be alleviated by dietary supplementation of endoxylanase (to reduce the adverse effects of digesta viscosity) or phospholipase (to improve the digestibility of fat). BUTA toms were fed wheat-based diets containing one of 5 enzyme treatments: unsupplemented control, Natugrain Blend® (<U>></U> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; NB), Lyxasan®-50 (<U>></U> 2,250 EXU/kg diet; LX50), Lyxasan®-100 (<U>></U> 5,500 EXU/kg diet; LX100), and Phospholipase (> 500 PLU/kg diet; PL) (BASF, Germany). Each treatment group was assigned to 8 pens containing 12 birds to evaluate growth performance (1-128 d), and 2 pens of 12 birds (excluding LX50) for the apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) and ileum viscosity determination (56-128 d). All enzyme treatments improved growth performance. In comparison to the control, dietary enzyme increased (P < 0.05) BW and decreased 1-128 d feed/gain (2.45 vs 2.37, P < 0.005). PL was most effective in reducing feed/gain during the starting phase and LX100 during the finishing phase, while NB had intermediate benefits throughout the experiment. PL increased AMEn from 9 to 12 wk, while NB and LX-100 resulted in the highest AMEn during the later finishing period. Viscosity was significantly higher for PL than the other treatments (13.5 vs 7.07 cP, P < 0.001). Growth performance and energy utilization of turkeys fed wheat-based diets can be significantly enhanced by phospholipase supplementation of starter feeds and endoxylanase supplementation of growing and finishing feeds. However, enzyme blends may provide a positive response regardless of turkey age.
  A.A. Santos Jr , P.R. Ferket , J.L. Grimes and F.W. Edens
  Wheat varies in apparent metabolizable energy N-corrected (AMEn) due to the presence of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), which can be improved by dietary enzyme supplementation. Poults from 0-17 d-age were fed diets containing various wheat sources (WS) with or without Natugrain Blend® (NB) (BASF, Germany). Five replicate cages of 10 poults were assigned to each eight-soybean-meal/wheat treatment diets and a control soybean-meal/corn diet. The treatments were a factorial arrangement of 4 WS (A, B, C, D) and 2 enzyme levels (0 and 200 mg NB/kg). The WS differed by the degree of frost damage during seed development. Regardless of the source of wheat, NB increased 17 d BW (351 vs 381 g, P < 0.001), decreased 1-17 d FCR (1.55 vs 1.49, P < 0.05), increased AMEn (2,204 vs 2,455 kcal/kg, P < 0.001), and increased apparent nitrogen retention (ANR) (35.0 vs 41.4 %, P < 0.05). No effects of WS were seen on growth performance, but WS A and B had higher (P < 0.05) AMEn than sources C and D (2,396 and 2,460 vs 2,246 and 2,216 kcal/kg, respectively). Gut viscosity was higher (P < 0.05) in poults fed wheat-based diets than the control diet. Enzyme supplementation to the wheat-based diets decreased viscosity (5.57 vs 3.98 cP, P < 0.05) to a level similar to the corn-based control diet, and it resulted in equivalent growth performance. Viscosities were negatively correlated with AMEn. The results demonstrated a positive effect of enzyme supplementation on nutrient utilization and performance of turkeys.
  A.S. Fairchild , J.L. Grimes , J.K. Porter , W.J. Croom Jr. , L.R. Daniel and W.M. Hagler Jr.
  Turkey poults were randomly placed in batteries and fed one of four dietary treatments: control (C); control plus 4ppm diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS); control plus 300 ppm (FA); and control plus 4ppm DAS and 300ppm FA (FD). There were 10 poults per pen with 6 replicate pens per treatment. Individual BW, BW gains (BWG) and feed consumption by pen was determined at d6, d12, and d18. Period and cumulative feed to gain was calculated. Mouth lesions were scored for treatments at d18. On d18 poults were euthanized for determination of organ weights and jejunal histomorphometrics. FA had no effect on BW or BWG at any period compared to C. Poults fed FD had reduced BW and BWG compared to C, while poults fed DAS had lower BW than all treatments at every period. Poults fed FA or C had better feed to gain (P<0.05) than poults fed DAS or FD at d6. There were no differences among the treatments at d12 or d18. Poults fed FA had significantly lower relative intestine wt than poults fed other diets, and significantly higher relative bursa wt at d18 when compared to poults fed DAS or FD. DAS, FA and FD altered intestinal architecture. Poults fed DAS or FD had higher mouth lesion scores than poults fed FA or C, but mouth lesion scores in DAS and FD poults were not different from each other. Dietary DAS resulted in decreased poult performance, while dietary FA had little or no effect. Fusaric acid fed in combination with DAS resulted in some protective effect towards DAS.
  V. L. Christensen , J.L. Grimes , R.D. Rowland and D.T. Ort
  Embryo and hatchling survival diminish as turkey breeder hens age. Recent data indicated that a chelated calcium proteinate (CCP) additive given to turkey breeder hens improved embryo survival as hens aged but did not affect shell thickness. We hypothesized that the mechanism by which this occurred may be by improved functional shell quality and its consequent effect on cardiac physiology. To test the hypothesis, CCP was supplemented to the diet of Large White turkey breeder hens for a 25 week egg production period and compared with controls without supplementation. Eggshell conductance, conductance constants, poult growth and cardiac physiology were measured at weeks 10, 18 and 25 of production. Because elevated temperatures increase heart rates and reduce heart weight and survival, half of the eggs was incubated at 37.9°C whereas the remaining eggs were incubated at 37.5°C. Embryos and poults from the CCP group exhibited increased heart weights and improved cardiac health. The hatching poults from CCP-fed hens also grew faster for the first 3 d of life. We conclude that CCP improves eggshell conductance, and the subsequent eggshell conductance constant (k) of eggs from turkey breeder hens. The change in k improved embryo cardiac health and poult BW after hatching.
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , T. Olson , J.L. Grimes , R.D. Rowland and D.T. Ort
  Supplementing 500 ppm of a chelated calcium proteinate (CCP) to a commercial breeder diet resulted in thicker shells and improved embryo livability. The CCP diet was fed to one half of a flock of breeders on a commercial farm that was suffering shell problems, and a standard commercial diet was fed to the remaining half. Egg production, eggshell thickness, fertility and hatchability of eggs were all monitored over an 18 wk laying period. Feeding CCP increased shell thickness and reduced numbers of cull eggs after 8 wk of lay compared to the controls. When differences in eggshell thickness were seen after 10 weeks of egg production, embryo survival and cardiac physiology were examined in three trials comparing the thicker shells to thin. Thick shells (0.44 versus 0.39 mm) improved embryo survival 2% by decreasing numbers of embryos dying late in development compared to controls and affected cardiac physiology. Thus, thick shells may improve embryo viability by affecting cardiac health during the plateau stage in oxygen consumption.
  V.L. Christensen , L.G. Bagley , T. Olson , J.L. Grimes and D.T. Ort
  Embryo heart rates were measured on 400 fertilized turkey eggs (399 viable embryos) at 4 day intervals beginning at day 12 of development. Heart rates varied directly with eggshell porosity and were significantly and positively correlated with eggshell conductance (G) and conductance constants (k) but not with initial egg weight. When only eggs with embryos that died were analyzed the significant correlation coefficients increased. In a second experiment, eggshell pores were occluded to reduce G then heart rates were measured. Heart rates decreased concomitantly with decreases in G. In the final experiment, approximately 15,912 eggs were weighed individually to calculate G for each egg and were then incubated. Embryo survival was noted in High and Low G groups. Embryo heart rate and cardiac physiology in each group was measured. Low G reduced heart rates and improved embryo survival and cardiac physiology compared to High G. Thus, cardiomyopathy due to High G and its consequent lack of energy for myocardial function may contribute to turkey embryo mortality late in development.
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