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Articles by J.D. Firman
Total Records ( 9 ) for J.D. Firman
  K. MASAGOUNDER , J.D. FIRMAN , R.S. HAYWARD , S. SUN and P.B. BROWN
  Apparent digestibility of dry matter and energy, and availability of amino acids from blood meal (BM), fish meal (FM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), soybean meal (SBM), corn, wheat and yellow grease (YG) were determined for bluegill Lepomis macrochirus (mean weight, 57g), and likewise, but not for BM or wheat, for largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (mean weight, 30g). To avoid nutrient interaction from a reference diet, diets containing 98.5% (985gkg−1) of test ingredients were used, except for semi-solid, YG which was mixed with corn to permit pelletization. Faeces were collected by a siphoning method. Apparent dry matter digestibility values ranged from 50% (corn) to 87% (BM) for bluegill and from 53% (MBM) to 76% (PBM) for largemouth bass. Apparent energy digestibility values ranged from 53% (corn) to 92% (BM) for bluegill and from 63% (MBM) to 93% (YG) for largemouth bass. Apparent digestibility of most amino acids exceeded 90% for evaluated protein sources, except for MBM which showed slightly lower values (80–90%) for both fishes. Isoleucine digestibility from BM was relatively low (82%) for bluegill. High digestibility values for SBM, PBM and BM, indicate good potential for replacing FM in diets for both fishes.
  J. McGill , E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on performance of broilers in a normal immune state. Ross 708 Broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen contained 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed in a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, Peroxide Value (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). The trial measured the performance of the broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Weight Gain (WG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens and birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate FE. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight and percent meat yield. The results indicated that diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater result in poorer feed conversion than the treatment with a peroxide value of 0. Furthermore, the addition of an antioxidant to the diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater yielded a numerically improved feed conversion over the diets with the same peroxide value but no antioxidant.
  J. McGill , E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  A floor pen trial was conducted to determine the effect of high peroxide value fats on the performance of broilers in an immune challenged state. Ross 708 broilers were randomly assigned to 48 floor pens with each pen containing 30 birds. Dietary treatments were developed as a 3 x 2 factorial using three levels of fat rancidity, with Peroxide Values (PV) of 0, 75 and 150. One half of each peroxide value diet also received an antioxidant at 125 ppm. Six dietary treatments with eight replicates were fed to broilers from hatch to day 49. Diets were formulated based on standard industry diets with the exception of fat being forced into the diet at 3% for the starter ration (0-3 wks), 6% in the grower ration (3-5 wks) and 6% in the finisher ration (5-7 wks). At 4 weeks of age the broilers underwent a coccidial challenge. The trial measured the performance of the immune challenged broilers based on the parameters of Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG) and feed conversion (F:G). An initial pen weight was taken on day 0 for each of the 48 pens. Birds were weighed at 3, 5 and 7 weeks of age to calculate F:G. At week 7, four birds per pen (32 birds/treatment) were sacrificed and processed in order to obtain a fat pad weight, carcass weight, percent meat yield and cecal scoring. The results indicated that birds consuming diets with a peroxide value of 75 or greater exhibited poorer feed conversion than the treatment with an acceptable peroxide value. Furthermore, diets with the added antioxidant demonstrated no statistical difference in feed conversion due to peroxide value. There were also no significant effects of the immune challenge in combination with peroxide levels on bird performance.
  E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding a 15% CP diet with crystalline amino acid supplementation on the performance of broilers from 0-3 weeks of age. In both experiments, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. Both experiments utilized the same six dietary treatments with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. The remaining treatments consisted of: a 15% CP negative control diet with crystalline amino acids added back to meet required levels (NC), a NC diet + 0.1% cystine (NC + C), a NC diet + 0.1% threonine (NC + T), a NC diet + 0.1% glycine (NC + G) and a NC diet + 0.1% cystine, threonine and glycine (NC + C,T,G). Glutamic acid was added to all diets to maintain a 20% protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. At the conclusion of the experiments, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, significant differences (p<0.05) were found in BWG between the PC treatment and PC + C,T,G, although no significant differences in FI or F:G were observed. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in BWG, FI, or F:G among any of the other treatments. In Experiment 2, treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on performance. Overall, these results suggest that feeding a 15% CP diet + crystalline amino acids to broilers in the starter period can yield similar performance to a 23% CP diet.
  E. McGill , A. Kamyab and J.D. Firman
  Two experiments were conducted with the objective of testing the effects of feeding 13% CP diets with crystalline amino acid supplementation and various protein equivalents on the performance of broilers in the starter growth period. In each experiment, commercial broilers were fed a diet formulated to meet NRC requirements for the first seven days. The diet contained 23% CP and 3200 kcal/kg ME and also served as the Positive Control Diet (PC). On day 7, birds were sorted by weight into battery pens with 5 birds per pen. In the first experiment, six dietary treatments were utilized with eight replicates per treatment for a total of 48 pens. For the remaining dietary treatments, 13% CP diets were formulated and various levels of crystalline amino acids were added back to meet either digestible amino acid levels from a 22% CP diet from previous experiments from our lab at the University of Missouri (Guaiume, 2007) or digestible amino acid requirements set by Baker and coworkers (1993) using the ideal protein concept. One treatment using the University of Missouri values contained no glutamic acid and a low protein equivalent of 15.5% (MLPE), while others contained varying levels of glutamic acid to achieve a high protein equivalent of 20% (MHPE) or a mid-level protein equivalent of 18% (MMPE). Similarly, two treatments were developed using Baker et al. (1993) amino acid values and glutamic acid to achieve a 20% high protein equivalent (BHPE) or an 18% mid-level equivalent (BMPE). In Experiment 2, four dietary treatments with 12 replicates were utilized for a total of 48 pens. The same 23% CP diet used as the PC in Experiment 1 was utilized in Experiment 2. The remaining treatments in Experiment 2 consisted of 13% crude protein diets with crystalline amino acids added back to meet control levels and either no glutamic acid to yield a protein equivalent of 17.5% (PE-17.5), or glutamic acid added to meet an 18.75% (PE-18.75) or 20% (PE-20) protein equivalent. All diets were formulated on a digestible basis and were designed to be isocaloric. Birds received feed and water ad libitum. At the conclusion of each experiment, Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Intake (FI) and Feed:Gain (F:G) were measured. In Experiment 1, birds consuming the PC treatment achieved significantly greater (p<0.05) BWG than birds in any other treatment. A significant difference (p<0.05) in intake was seen between the BMPE treatment and all others. A significantly improved F:G (p<0.05) was observed in the PC treatment. Additionally, the BMPE treatment resulted in impaired F:G (p<0.05) when compared to the MMPE and MHPE treatments. In Experiment 2, birds receiving the PE-17.5 treatment gained significantly less weight (p<0.05) than those consuming other dietary treatments. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in feed intake. Birds in the PC groups displayed significantly improved F:G over all other treatments (p<0.05).
  J.D. Firman , D. Moore , J. Broomhead and D. McIntyre
  An experiment was conducted to test the effects of different levels of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on the performance and gut characteristics of male turkeys to 18 weeks of age. Turkeys were housed in a 32 pen facility (800 birds) with eight replicates and three levels (0.0625, 0.125, 0.25%) of XPC (Diamond V Mills) compared to a negative control without XPC. Experimental parameters measured included: body weight, feed intake, feed conversion, mortality and gut parameters (villi height, crypt depth, gut section histopathology). Processing yield was measured at the conclusion of the trial. All other diets and husbandry practices were based on industry standards. Feed efficiency was significantly improved in the 15-18 week period at all treatment levels (2.64 vs. 2.76 feed: gain at 18 weeks). No other differences in performance parameters measured were observed. Pectoralis major yield was higher in all treatment groups (19.9% vs. 20.7%) when compared to controls. No statistical differences were seen in gut samples in terms of gut scores, villi height, or crypt depth. The data reported here indicates that supplementing the diet with XPC may have a positive effect on the feed efficiency and breast meat yield of tom turkeys but that further studies are needed to define this effect.
  E.R. McGill and J.D. Firman
  Variability within nutrition experiments can be problematic, especially when one is trying to pick up small differences between experimental treatments. A variety of methods have been used over the years to reduce starting animal weight such as weighing animals into different weight groupings followed by selection of animals from the different group in an attempt to obtain smaller differences in starting weights. This paper describes a computer based sorting method that will substantially reduce variation of starting animal weights. In the example used, 700 turkey poults were sorted in three ways at one week of age into 70 pens of 10 poults per pen. Initially 800 poults were weighed and banded with top and bottom weight poults removed to the 700 poults needed. Random assignment of poults resulted in pen weights that ranged from 122.12 to 151.94 g/bird, a difference of 24.4%. Using a 3 weight grouping resulted in an average pen weight range of 130.22 to 140.4 g/bird, a difference of 10.18 g/pen or 7.8%. Using the sorting program resulted in average pen weights ranging from 134.88 to 135.56 g/bird, a difference of 0.68 g or 0.5%, substantially lower than the group sorting. It is believed that this type of sorting of animals at the beginning of an experiment will result in substantially reduced variation.
  A.R. Birk , C.A. Johnson and J.D. Firman
  Background: Addition of fat has been shown to improve performance of broilers, but can also be expensive. Methodology: An experiment was designed to determine if early addition of fat might lead to performance improvements that would be maintained to market weight. Forty nine days experiment was conducted to test the addition of 6 or 8% Yellow Grease (YG) to diets of broilers during the 0-10 or 0-14 day pre-starter period. Forty eight pens of birds were fed one of 6 treatments of 8 pens (33 chicks per pen) consisting of a control (least cost addition of YG), 6% YG or 8% YG, each fed to either 10 or 14 days. Diets consisted of commercial type corn-soydistillers dried grains with solubles(DDGS)-meat meal base and were adjusted to maintain a consistent relationship between energy and crude protein as well as amino acids. Birds were weighed and diets changed at 10 or 14 days, 17 days and 35 days with completion of the trial at 49 days. Results: Feed conversion was significantly improved by the addition of fat during the treatment period, a result of numerically higher body weight and reduced feed intake, although neither was significant. Improved growth performance from the addition of fat during the treatment period did not result in improved performance at market, as no effects by dietary treatment were found at 49 days. Conclusion: These results suggest the addition of high levels of fat in the pre-starter ration does not improve growth performance at 49 days.
  M. B. Leigh , T. B. McFadden , L. Schumacher and J.D. Firman
  Background and Objective: Lighting is a powerful exogenous stimulus that controls many physiological and behavioral processes in the broiler chicken. Traditionally, incandescent lighting has been used as the standard throughout the broiler industry. New technology has recently become available including LED lighting. Previous studies have shown possible advantages in broiler performance under lighting by various colored LED lights. These reports are ambiguous and it is still quite unclear as to which lighting source would be most advantageous. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various wavelengths of monochromatic light emitting diode illumination on growth and performance of broiler chickens raised in a commercial-style setting. Methodology: The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block with 4 treatments applied to each of 12 replicate pens of 30 birds/pen. Broilers were reared under standard white LED, green LED, blue LED and red LED lighting from 0-49 days of age and were monitored at days 17, 35 and 49 for individual bird body weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Results: There were no statistical differences between treatment groups for daily and overall body weight gain, daily and overall feed intake, feed conversion ratio and percent mortality, with the exception of slightly lower body weight (BW) at 35 days in the green LED treatment. Overall, there were no statistical differences in performance for the trial. At day 50, birds were processed for parts yield. No statistical differences between treatments were observed for carcass yield, fat pad, pectoralis major, total pectoralis, thigh, wing or leg as a percentage of cold carcass. However, pectoralis minor and wing yield showed minor differences. Conclusion: Broiler performance was similar under all wavelengths of LED lights compared in this study.
 
 
 
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