Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by J.D. Kabasa
Total Records ( 8 ) for J.D. Kabasa
  D. Olila , G. Kyeyune , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi and P.K.T. Munishi
  Most of the mushrooms, which are used as food by communities bordering Lake Victoria wetland areas, have neither been documented nor studied. These indigenous mushrooms are used solely as products of the wild. While the cultivation of mushrooms for food is a lucrative economic activity even in some developed countries, in East Africa, this has not yet been fully exploited. In the studies reported here, local people around the Lake Victoria basin participated in ranking mushroom species according to their nutritional, medicinal and toxicological significance. Termitomyces microcarpus was the highest ranked edible mushroom in the region. The T. microcarpus mushroom caps at umbrella stage were excised and inverted over dry sterile filter paper in a sterile petri-dish and incubated. The caps were then removed leaving pink `spore prints`. Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) medium was prepared by dissolving 39g of the powder in 1L of distilled water and autoclaved at 121 C for 20 min. On cooling the media was poured in petri-dishes and left to solidify. Using a flame sterilized inoculation wire loop, spores were transferred from the `spore print` and S-streaked on the fresh PDA medium. The inoculated plates were incubated at ambient temperature (25ēC) in the dark for 10 days. Three discrete pure colonies were separately subcultured onto fresh PDA medium and incubated under the previous conditions for 60 days. These constituted the three monospore cultures; S1 S2 and S3 which were used as starter cultures for further studies. The growth of the monospore starter cultures was monitored and a record taken of their colony diameter once a week during the 60 day incubation period. Using the liquid culture technique, the grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S3 had fully colonized compared to that for monospore starter cultures S1 and S2 which attained full colonization at 75 and 90 days, respectively. However, there were differences in the intensity of colonization with grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S3 giving a much more intense mycelial growth as compared to grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S1, which gave a moderate mycelial growth. Mycelial colonization for grain mother spawn of monospore starter culture S2 was a bit scanty. The grain mother spawn prepared using the agar culture plug technique were very slow. After four months mycelial colonization was at most 25% of the total volume of millet substrate of grain mother spawn for monospore starter culture S1, but not more than 10% for the grain mother spawn of monospore starter cultures S2 and S3. Further studies are needed to initiate fruiting body formation which has not been possible under the present test conditions. This will require a better understanding of the relationship between the fungus and the termite and the ecological relationships therein.
  M. Opige , E. Kateyo , J.D. Kabasa and D. Olila
  Antibacterial resistance is a world wide growing problem. Isolation of microbial agents less susceptible to regular antibiotics and recovery of resistant isolates during antibacterial therapy is increasing throughout the world. One of the measures to combat the increasing rate of resistance is to have a continuous investigation for new, safe and effective antimicrobials as alternative agents to substitute with no-effective ones. In this study the efficacy of selected mushrooms of Teso region (Kumi District) against common bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial assays were done using methanol and petroleum ether extracts from mushrooms and Agar Well Diffusion Method and study Disc Methods were used to demonstrate activity. It was noted that E. coli was resistant to most petroleum ether and methanol extracts. Also S. aureus was significantly inhibited by petroleum ether extracts while P. aeruginosa, a very resistant bacterium always, was significantly inhibited by the methanol extracts. These activities might be of some practical importance if the chemical compounds inducing activity are known. Further studies should therefore be done to confirm and extend the present findings, working on a broader range of species.
  F. Ejobi , J.D. Kabasa , J. Oloya , C. Ebong , J. Kabirizi , P. Isabirye and R. Livingston
  We used the Livestock Analysis Model (LAM) to estimate the current and projected amount of methane, a greenhouse gas, produced by the cattle population in Uganda in the period from 2000 to 2030. The LAM is a data-intensive computer model developed by the United States Environment Protection Agency. The data required for the model were derived from official documents of the Government of Uganda. Secondary data on human and cattle population and production target of beef and milk were subjected to stepwise regression analysis and the outputs were used in the LAM. Primary data for the LAM were also generated through a national livestock survey. According to the LAM, the total methane emissions from cattle in Uganda in the year 2000 were estimated at 337,796 tons. This amount is projected to nearly triple by the year 2030 unless appropriate mitigation measures are put in place in the country. Among indigenous cattle breeds, the Zebu and Nganda had the highest methane emissions per unit of product, generating approximately 1 kilogram of methane per kilogram of milk produced, while the Ankole cattle emitted approximately 0.566 kg of methane per kilogram of milk produced. On the other hand, the improved breeds emitted only 0.123 kg of methane per kilogram of milk produced. The results of this study show that the cattle sector in Uganda has a potential for international investments for reduction of methane emissions in line with the Clean Development Mechanism under the Kyoto Protocol.
  G. Maria Nassuna-Musoke , J.D. Kabasa and M. John King
  In order to know whether heat stress associated with the warm tropical environment in Central Uganda has a direct effect on the physiology of imported temperate Friesian cows, physiological responses of 81 Friesian animals grouped into Zero Grazed (ZG), n = 28 and Open Grazed (OG), n = 53 cows to heat stress were measured. The responses examined included Hair Coat Temperature (HCT), Breathing Rate (BR) and Rectal Temperature (RT). Cow responses were measured repeatedly every 7-9 days during 4 seasons, between 1200 and 1700 h, simultaneously with spot measurement of microclimatic parameters, i.e. ambient Temperature (TA), Relative Humidity (RH), Solar Radiation (SR), Wind Speed (WS) and black globe Temperature (TBG). Statistical analyses of physiological responses were done using the SAS 6.12 statistical package and included FREQ procedure, TTEST and GLM. Results indicated that animals responded to changes in the microclimate and temperature, relative humidity and solar radiation were directly causing heat stress to a proportion of cows at the smallholder farms. These climatic parameters had stronger effects on animal responses in OG than ZG cows accounting for up to 24 and 36% of variation in physiological the parameters, respectively. Wind movements were important in reducing hyperthermia in both systems.
  G. Maria Nassuna-Musoke , J.D. Kabasa and M. John King
  To examine the influence of farm management system of Open Grazing (OG) and Zero Grazing (ZG) on the microclimate ambience of the cow, spot measurements of ground and air temperatures, solar-radiation, Temperature Humidity Indices (THI) and wind speed were measured on three OG and three ZG farms over a 12 months period at weekly intervals in the afternoons. The spot-readings were backed up by continuous recording of on-farm ambient Temperature (TA) and humidity using a data-logger, plus standard weather recordings at a Met-station 12 km away at the Kawanda Agricultural Research Institute. Data was analysed using SAS general linear models. Results show that mean temperature maxima were > in OG than ZG farms (p = 0.0001), with AT of 30 and 28°C, respectively. Mean ground temperatures were 27.4°C for OG and 24.0°C for ZG (p = 0.018). Mean THIs were 77.9 for OG and 75.1 for ZG (p = 0.0001). Mean spot solar-radiation was 462 Watts m 2 and 12.2 Watt s m 2 (p = 0.0001) for OG and ZG, respectively. Climatic parameters and indices known to reduce heat stress were better in OG than ZG farms. Mean minimum AT was (OG 16.2°C, ZG 18.4°C, p = 0.0001), Diurnal Temperature Variation (DTV) was (OG 13.7°C, ZG 9.7°C, p = 0.0001), while spot wind speed was (OG 1.23 m s 1, ZG 0.23 m s 1, p = 0.0001). Thus, climatic heat stress was more on OG than ZG farms. However, cows under both management systems experience afternoon heat load above the comfort zone (THI< 72; TA 5°-21° C) throughout the year at levels that depress milk production of lactating Friesians. Although parameters known to reduce heat stress were better on OG than ZG farms, wind speed under both management systems was < 2.2 m s 1, the minimum required to reduce heat stress. Hence, microclimates under both systems were stressful and would contribute to depressed Friesian cow productivity.
  G. Maria Nassuna Musoke , J.D. Kabasa and M. John King
  The hypothesis that environmental constraints in the warm tropical Central Uganda depress milk production of Friesians on smallholdings was tested using records from 85 small farms around Kampala. Daily Milk Yield (DMY), Lactation Milk Yield (LMY) and the shape of the lactation curve were compared with those of a typical Friesian cow in the temperate zones. Differences yields of shaded/Zero Grazed (ZG) and non-shaded/Open Grazed (OG) cows demonstrated the microenvironment effect on performance. Nutrition effects were evaluated by comparing the variation of monthly DMY with that variation in monthly total rainfall. Lactation curves were generated by plotting mean DMY against time in months after calving. The overall mean DMY and LMY/cow/day of lactation were 60 and 65%, respectively of those of a Friesian in the temperate zone. The lactation curve of Friesians in Central Uganda was characterised by a transient peak followed by a consistent drop in daily yield compared to the typical lactation curve of a temperate dairy cow that is characterised by a peak at 5-6 weeks followed by a gradual decline. ZG cows had longer lactation lengths, higher LMY and higher DMY than OG cows. Least squares mean DMY was 12.8±0.1L and 10.6±0.1L litres for ZG and OG cows respectively. So, environmental constraints depress production of Friesians on small farms in Central Uganda and although cows may benefit from shading, production is generally below the genetic potential of the Friesian genotype.
  D. Olila , A. Kapaata , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi and P.K.T. Munishi
  Indigenous mushrooms have attracted little attention form science in the East Africa region for a long time. And yet studies in other areas of the word have shown that mushrooms contain many different bioactive compounds with diverse biological activity. For long, mushrooms have been cultivated world wide for commercial purposes. In East Africa, however, little research has been done in to ascertain the nutritional and anti bacterial properties of indigenous mushrooms, much less their ecology. Proximate composition analysis (Weende) revealed the following: CP (25.9-41.9); CL ( 4.4-7.7); CHO (30.8-38.2); K (1.4-3.5); Ca ( 0.0095-0.0115). This points to the fact that the mushrooms are relatively high in protein and low in fat; making them potentially good health foods. Antibacterial activity was demonstrated in all puffball extracts, but particularly strong on E. coli. Both the polar (methanol) and the non-polar (pet-ether) extracts were shown to have antibacterial activity. The relatively high protein estimates obtained in this study indicate that the indigenous mushrooms are a good source of protein therefore could supplement human diet. The low lipid percentage of these mushrooms would mean that they are potential health foods. Crude extracts from indigenous puff ball mushrooms showed some antibacterial activity on both gram negative (Escherischia coli and Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus). Both methanol (polar) and petroleum ether extracts had activity on some organisms to varying degrees. Extracts from puff balls have greater antibacterial activity on gram negative bacteria than on gram positive. The non polar extracts (Petroleum ether) of puff balls had more activity on E. coli. From the results obtained it can be shown that indigenous puff balls could be a promising source of antibacterial agents. Since most mushrooms are saprophytic, easily growing on agriculture waste materials, it is recommended that agricultural system in this region be encouraged to domesticate these healthy foods. A type collection and taxonomical identification should be embarked on in the whole of the East Africa region so that botanical identification of all the indigenous mushrooms will be made much easier in the future.
  A.P.O. Engola , G. Eilu , J.D. Kabasa , L. Kisovi , P.K.T. Munishi and D. Olila
  The present study was conducted between (October, 2004) and (June, 2005) in two parishes of Kyebe Sub County in Rakai District located in the Lake Victoria Basin, Southwest of Uganda and west of Lake Victoria. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between mushroom species occurrence, environmental factors and different vegetation types. Ten 1000 m-2 plots were established in each of three vegetation types (grassland, forest and garden) from where mushroom species and trees were assessed. Physical and chemical soil properties as well as canopy were determined in the sample plots. A total of 4.077 individual mushrooms belonging to 5 genera and 10 species were recorded in the plots. Three individuals that could not be identified were assigned to morpho species. Mushroom diversity and evenness were highest in the grassland while dominance was highest in the forest. Pluteus sp was found occurring only in the grassland, Agaricus sp 2 and K/K/04/N1 were found in the garden while three species (Termitomyces sp 1, Podabrella microcarpa and Agaricus sp 1) were found in all vegetation types. Termitomyces sp 1 and Pluteus sp were significantly correlated with some of the measured environmental factors. Indigenous edible mushrooms are an important aspect of ecology. The integrity of the grasslands should be protected to promote mushroom conservation. Field studies on mushroom species in this area in the future should target the rain season between September and December.
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility