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Articles by J.C. Onweluzo
Total Records ( 4 ) for J.C. Onweluzo
  J.C. Onweluzo and C.C. Nwabugwu
  Weaning foods were formulated by complementing millet with pigeon-pea after sprouting and fermentation pre-treatments. Products were evaluated for composition and functional properties. Nutritional quality was evaluated by animal feeding experiment using 36 weanling male Wister rats (45-55g). Untreated composite, commercial weaning food (Cerelac) and casein diet served as controls. Sprouted pigeon pea and sprouted millet (SPSM) composite had high crude and true proteins which compared with protein of casein diet but differed (p < 0.05) from the protein content of other diets. Calcium and iron in all formulated diets except SPSM compared with the levels in commercial diet. Viscosity was lower (p < 0.05) in formulated diets (200-209cps) than in commercial control (303cps). Fermented pigeon-pea and fermented millet (SPFM) and sprouted pigeon-pea and fermented millet (SPFM) diets gave highest (p < 0.05) weight gain (113.51g and 123.42g), PER (2.15 and 2.02), BV (70.7 and 76.2) and NPU (70.13 and 74.57), respectively thus suggesting their superiority over other diets. Diets FPSM and SPFM promoted growth better than other formulated diets.
  J.C. Onweluzo and O.M. Nnamuchi
  Porridge-type breakfast products were prepared by blending boiled and fermented (24 h) Treculia africana and fermented (24 and 48 h) sorghum flours in 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 ratios. Products were evaluated for composition, functional properties and sensory acceptability. A commercial indigenous porridge-type product (Ogi dawa), served as the control. Products contained 14.24%-15.75% crude protein, 4.09%-6.00% ether extract and an average metabolizable energy of 1.8 KJ. Fermented Treculia africana products had higher (p<0.05) soluble carbohydrate and water uptake than other products. The formulated products exhibited lower (p<0.05) apparent viscosity than equal concentration of the control. Residual anti-nutrients, tannin, phytate, cyanide and lectin were generally low in the products. Blend of 50:50 boiled Treculia africana and fermented (24 h) sorghum product was least preferred. All blends of fermented Treculia africana products except 50:50 ratio had high (p<0.05) scores for mouthfeel, colour and appearance. All formulated products had higher nutrient density than the control.
  J.C. Onweluzo and C.C. Nwabugwu
  The effects of period of fermentation on the chemical composition and selected functional properties of millet (Pennisetum americanum) and Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) seed flours were examined. The fermentation time ranged from 24-96 h. Flours of the unfermented seeds served as controls. Fermentation for 24 h decreased (p<0.05) crude protein in both millet and pigeon pea flours. At 72 h, significant increase (p<0.05) in crude protein occurred in pigeon pea. Ether extract and metabolizable energy increased (p<0.05) in both flours at 72 h fermentation. Apparent decreases (p>0.05) occurred in the total ash of both flours with increase in fermentation time except at the 96 h of pigeon pea. Tannin level was lowest in both flours at 72 h. Significant (p<0.05) decreases in cyanide occurred in pigeon pea from the 24 h and was lowest at the 72 h. Phytate was low in both flours. A 10% (w/v) gruel of millet and pigeon pea flour exhibited 363 cp and 380 cp apparent viscosity respectively at 72 h fermentation. Significant (p<0.05) reduction in water absorption capacity occurred only at the early stages (24 and 48 h) of fermentation in millet. Water Solubility Index increased in both flours with increase in fermentation period while reconstitution time reduced significantly (p<0.05). Least gelation concentration increased by 100% in pigeon pea at 48 h and 72 h. Fermenting for 72 h seem to offer some advantages over other periods.
  I.E. Mbaeyi-Nwaoha and J.C. Onweluzo
  The possibility of replacing treated (SSF) and untreated (USF) sorghum flour with different ratios of pigeon pea flour (CCF) was investigated. Their functional properties (Bulk density, viscosity, least gelation concentration, water absorption capacity, reconstitution time, pH and particle size distribution) were examined. Bulk density increased with the increased supplementation of pigeon pea flour the formulation resulting in a denser product. Sprouting and pregelatinization increased in the viscosity of the flour compared to the untreated samples. The least gelation concentration ranged between 0.2-0.4 g/g. Both pregelatinization and sprouting increased the strength of the gel of the treated samples unlike the untreated ones. The pregelatinized flours and their flour blends absorbed more water (7.00-8.00 g/ml) than the sprouted samples (7.00-7.50 g/ml) which caused some starch gelatinization and increased porosity of the corneous endosperm fragments. Higher absorption and lower solubility led to higher viscosity (p<0.05) or cooked paste viscosity. Untreated samples show marginally high oil absorption capacity of between 2.66 g/ml-3.23 g/ml, the pregelatinized flour and their composites showed higher (p<0.05) oil absorption capacity (2.66-3.04 g/ml) while the sprouted sample ranged between 2.85-3.23 g/ml. However, sample SSF + CCF (100:0) took 92.5 seconds to reconstitute while. PSF+CCF (60:40) took 20.0 seconds probably be due to heat treatment during pregelatinization which increased the action of alpha- and beta- amylases and modified the native starch. PSF + CCF (100:0) gave the least pH of 4.25 while USF + CCF (80:20) gave the highest value of 5.87 (all in the acidic range). Thus, the blending of the sorghum and pigeon pea could perform favorably in the formulation of breakfast cereal and infant foods. A high quality flaked breakfast cereal was prepared from sprouted and pregelatinized, packaged and stored on a shelf at room temperature (25±2°C) for 90 days. The storage stability was evaluated by analyzing periodically for changes in physical properties (water activity, colour change, temperature, relative humidity), chemical changes (development of peroxides and rancidity) and microbiological changes. Result show that colour, temperature, relative humidity, peroxide values and Thiobarbituric Acid (TBA) values remain practically constant during storage. Also, no significant (p>0.05) changes were observed in TBA values, peroxide value, water activity and moisture absorption of the packaged products during storage. The water activity (aw) of all products was between 0.435-0.785 and none were attracted by microorganisms over the 3 months. The products did not exhibit bacterial, coliform and mold growth, especially for those in the bulk packages, which served as a double barrier to moisture, oxygen and other gases. Thus, the bulk packages are advantageous over the single packs thereby suggesting that the former could lead to better keeping quality for these products and the products also maintained their crispiness. By implication from the shelf life projection studies, the formulated products from the treated flours might be stored in high density polythene bags for up to six months or more at ambient conditions.
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