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Articles by J.A. Byrd
Total Records ( 3 ) for J.A. Byrd
  Z. R. Howard , R.W. Moore , I.B. Zabala Diaz , W.K. Kim , S.G. Birkhold , J.A. Byrd , L.F. Kubena , D.J. Nisbet and S.C. Ricke
  An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25ÂșC. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2). The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of weeks 0, 2, 3 and 7 (trial 2) and the number of detectable S. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.
  H.P. Bhaskaran , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Wooming , I. Reyes-Herrera , L.R. Bielke , G. Tellez , J.A. Byrd , P.J. Blore , B.M. Hargis and D.J. Donoghue
  The administration of nonpathogenic microflora in neonatal poultry has been employed to reduce or eliminate the colonization of enteric pathogens. This concept, also called Competitive Exclusion (CE), although effective against Salmonella, has not consistently worked against Campylobacter. Most CE cultures are developed by randomly collecting enteric bacteria without any preselection criteria for bacteria. It may be possible to enhance the efficacy of a CE against Campylobacter by preselecting enteric microflora with the ability to inhibit Campylobacter, in vitro. With this goal, an assay was developed to test individual isolates with the ability to reduce or eliminate Campylobacter growth, in vitro. Individual isolates (n = 137) were collected from ceca of both juvenile and adult poultry and tested for efficacy against Campylobacter. Isolates were serially diluted (104 or 105 CFU/well) and added to 96 well polystyrene plates containing 1 x 104 CFU C. jejuni or C. coli/well. Plates were incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Following incubation, a 1 μl loop from each well was streaked onto Campy-Cefex agar plate and incubated at 42°C in a microaerophilic environment for 24-48 h. Twenty-three isolates were identified with the ability to inhibit C. jejuni or C. coli growth in vitro. This research demonstrates that it is possible to pre-screen enteric isolates for Campylobacter inhibition for use as competitive exclusion cultures.
  G.S Archer and J.A. Byrd
  Background and Objectives: Light-emitting diode (LED) light bulbs are becoming more prevalent in layer production and there is discussion on whether the spectrum of light that is produced by the bulb can affect stress and health of laying hens. To investigate if differences between how different wavelengths of light affect these factors we raised hens under either bulbs that produced mainly blue light (BLUE), or mainly red light (RED) or mainly a white light (WHITE). Methodology: Each treatment consisted of 30 white leghorn hens and the experiment was replicated twice. Stress susceptibility was measured using bilateral asymmetry (ASYM), plasma corticosterone concentrations (CORT) and secondary antibody production to I.M. KLH injection (KLH). The birds were also subjected to a Salmonella challenged. Hens were broken into groups that were Unvaccinated/unchallenged (UVUC), Salmonella enteritidis (SE) vaccinated/unchallenged (VUC), Unvaccinated/ SE challenged (UVC) and SE vaccinated/SE challenged (VC). The ceca were enumerated. Results: RED birds had lower ASYM (1.43±0.12 mm) than both BLUE (1.85±0.14 mm, p = 0.03) and YELLOW (1.86±0.13 mm, p = 0.03). RED (13.8±1.7 ng mL1, p = 0.03) and YELLOW (12.7±1.7 ng mL1, p = 0.01) birds had lower CORT than BLUE (21.1±1.8 ng mL1). RED birds (401562±22013 U mL1) had higher KLH titers both BLUE (338312±18272 U mL1, p = 0.03) and YELLOW (333814±18790 U mL1, p = 0.03). Lighting did not affect ceca counts or serum titers in either trial (p>0.05). Differences were observed in the Salmonella titers between the vaccinated versus unvaccinated groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The results indicate that spectrum of LED light can affect the stress susceptibility and but not Salmonella status.
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