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Articles by J.A. Cason
Total Records ( 6 ) for J.A. Cason
  A. Hinton , Jr. , J.A. Cason , M.E. Hume and K.D. Ingram
  The presence of Campylobacter spp. on broiler carcasses and in scald tank water in a commercial poultry processing facility was monitored at monthly intervals from July through December. The spread of the pathogen had previously been monitored in the same facility from January through June of the same year. Campylobacter were enumerated on prescalded, picked, eviscerated, and chilled broiler carcasses; on processed carcasses stored at 4°C for 7 or 14 days, and in scald tank water samples. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profile of the Campylobacter isolates and the degree of relatedness between the Campylobacter isolates was determined using the MIDI Sherlock Microbial Identification System (MIS). Findings indicated that Campylobacter jejuni was present on carcasses and in scald tank water samples collected from July through December. Processing significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the number of Campylobacter recovered from broiler carcasses, however. Furthermore, significantly (P < 0.05) fewer C. jejuni were consistently recovered from the third tank of the multiple tank scald system than from the first tank. Findings indicated that poultry flocks may introduce several strains of C. jejuni into processing facilities. Additionally, different populations of the pathogen may be carried into the processing plant by successive broiler flocks, and some strains of C. jejuni may reappear in the same processing facility during different times of the year.
  L.L. Young , D.P. Smith , J.A. Cason and J.M. Walker
  The objective of this study was to evaluate combined effects of whole carcass electrical stimulation and polyphosphates on moisture absorption and retention by marinated non-aged boneless chicken breast fillets. Breast fillets were harvested from electrically stimulated and non-stimulated carcasses immediately after chilling. Half were immediately marinated in saline solution and half in a similar solution containing sodium tripolyphosphate. Muscle pH before and after marination, marinade absorption and cooking loss were recorded. Electrical stimulation immediately depressed muscle pH, but polyphosphate marination mitigated that trend somewhat. Electrical stimulation improved marinade absorption (10.6±0.3% verses 8.8±0.3%) but did not affect cooking loss. Polyphosphates did not affect marinade absorption, but significantly reduced cooking losses (17.3±0.4% verses 14.1±0.4%). No marinade by electrical treatment interactions affecting moisture absorption or retention by the fillets were detected.
  L.L. Young , D.P. Smith , J.A. Cason and J.M. Walker
  Early harvested broiler breast fillets from electrically stimulated and non-stimulated carcasses were marinated in either saline or saline containing sodium tripolyphosphate to determine whether the stimulation and phosphate interact in such a way as to affect texture or color of non-aged breast fillets. Stimulated carcasses produced fillets with lower pre-marination pH (6.1 ±0.1 verses 6.5 ±0.1) and shear values (6.4 ±0.3 kg verses 15.5 ±0.3 kg) than unstimulated carcasses. Polyphosphate increased shear values of fillets from unstimulated by almost 1 kg, but not of those from stimulated carcasses. No other stimulation by polyphosphate interactions that affect texture or color of the fillets were detected.
  L.L. Young , J.A. Cason , D.P. Smith , C.E. Lyon , J.A. Dickens and J.M. Walker
  This study was conducted to determine effects of carcass electrical stimulation and alternative carcass chilling methods on texture and yield of early-harvested boneless broiler-breast fillets. New York dressed broiler carcasses were electrically stimulated for 90 s immediately after defeathering. Control carcasses were held similarly for 90 s but not stimulated. After evisceration, half the stimulated and half the control carcasses were chilled for 3 h in ice-water (extended immersion chilled). Remaining carcasses were chilled in ice-water for 1 h and then stored for an additional 2 h (conventionally chilled). Breast fillets (Pectoralis major muscles) were manually harvested immediately after chilling (3.5 h post-mortem). After weighing and overnight storage, all muscles were cooked and evaluated for shear values and cooked yields. Fillets from stimulated carcasses required significantly less force to shear and exhibited greater cooked yields than those from non-stimulated carcasses. Fillets from conventionally chilled carcasses exhibited greater yield than those from extended chilled carcasses, but chilling method did not affect shear values.
  J.A. Cason , R.J. Buhr , A. Hinton , Jr. , M.E. Berrang and N.A. Cox
  Lactic-acid-producing bacterial cultures were applied to the skin of live broilers 24 hours before slaughter to determine whether inoculation with the cultures could affect the numbers of bacteria that are normally found on the skin of processed broiler carcasses. The cultures contained 10,000 to 100,000 cfu/mL and were suspended in 250 mL of a pH 6.0 nutrient medium (including glucose, peptone, beef extract, yeast extract, a surfactant, and salts) intended to enhance the survival and growth of the cultures. With broilers suspended by the feet, feathers were moved aside and the liquid suspension was sprayed directly on the skin. Sprayed broilers were then returned to a pen. In each of three replications, 4 six-wk-old broilers were sprayed and 4 broilers were kept as untreated controls. The following day, broilers were processed in a research processing facility and defeathered carcasses were sampled by rinsing for 1 min in 200 mL of peptone water after removal of heads and feet. Coliforms, E. coli, lactic-acid bacteria, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were enumerated by standard methods. After removal of aliquots for plating, the remaining sample volume was enriched to detect Salmonella. No differences were found in log10(cfu/mL) of coliforms, E. coli, or lactic-acid bacteria between the treated and control carcasses. Salmonella bacteria were present on some carcasses, but with no difference between treatments. Campylobacter spp. were present in only one replication, so numbers of Campylobacter could not be analyzed statistically. Spraying lactic-acid-producing bacteria with nutrients on the skin of live broilers on the day before processing appears to have no effect on numbers of bacteria that are present on the skin after defeathering.
  J.A. Cason , A. Hinton and Jr.
  Suspended bacteria were enumerated in scald water and carcass rinse samples from a commercial broiler chicken processing plant with a multiple-tank, counterflow scalder. Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter were enumerated and the Most Probable Number (MPN) of salmonellae was determined in water samples from each of three scald tanks, from a dip tank located between defeathering machines, and in rinses of carcasses removed from the processing line immediately after defeathering. Mean coliform concentrations in Tanks 1, 2, and 3 were 4.6, 2.5, and 1.6 log10(cfu/ml), respectively. E. coli concentrations followed the same pattern with means of 4.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in Tanks 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with significant differences (P< 0.05) in the concentrations of both coliforms and E. coli between tanks. Mean Campylobacter concentration in four positive samples from Tank 1 was 4.0 log10 (cfu/ml), but only one water sample from Tank 2 and none from Tank 3 were Campylobacter positive. Coliforms and E. coli were found in dip tank samples in only two instances, with no isolations of Campylobacter or salmonellae. Mean numbers of coliforms, E. coli, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were 3.1, 2.7, and 3.3 log10(cfu/ml). Salmonellae were isolated from five of six water samples from Tank 1 with a mean MPN of 13.3/100mL, but were isolated from only three of six water samples from Tank 2 and two of six from Tank 3. Salmonellae were isolated from half (18/36) of all carcass rinses. Most bacteria suspended in scald water were found in the first tank, with no Campylobacter or salmonellae found in the dip tank. Counterflow, multiple-tank scalders appear to reduce the opportunity for cross-contamination during scalding.
 
 
 
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