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Articles by J. Zhao
Total Records ( 4 ) for J. Zhao
  J. Zhao , G.R. Huang , M.N. Zhang , W.W. Chen and J.X. Jiang
  Protein hydrolysate have many practical applications in a various of industries due to the bioactive peptides related to their amino acid composition, sequence and molecular weight. The amino acid composition, molecular weight distribution and antioxidant stability of alcalase hydrolysate were investigated in this study. The hydrolysate was separated into five fractions by ultra filtration system with different molecular weight cutoff with 10, 5, 3 and 1 kDa, respectively. The protein content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and molecular weight of each fraction were determined. In addition, the antioxidant stability of the hydrolysate under several operating conditions was studied. The results showed that the hydrolysate was composed with high amounts of hydrophobic amino acids (40.4%) which might contribute to the high antioxidant activity. The fraction with molecular weight lower than 1 kDa exhibited the highest antioxidative activity among the five fractions. The antioxidant stability experiments showed that the hydrolysate was stable when it was heated up to 100°C and the relative antioxidative activity could be maintained nearly 70% at very low pH of 2.0. Glucose and sucrose had negative effects on the antioxidative activity, in which the relative activity of about 80% was retained. Sodium chloride and sodium benzoate had little or no effects on the antioxidative activity of the hydrolysate. The effects of Zn2+ and Cu2+ on the antioxidative activity were significant and dependent on metal concentration. The shrimp processing byproduct hydrolysate may be a potential natural food antioxidant in the future.
  Q. Wan , F. Wang , Q. Guan , Y. Liu , C. Wang , L. Feng , L. Feng , L. Gao and J. Zhao
  Aims Lipotoxicity has recently been shown to be an important risk factor underlying the pathogenesis of pre-diabetes. However, clinical evidence supporting the treatment of pre-diabetes by improving lipotoxicity is lacking. Here, we conducted an open-label, randomized, controlled trial to investigate whether fenofibrate, the widely used hypolipidaemic agent, might benefit pre-diabetes, with metfomin and diet control, the recommended intervention methods, as positive controls. Methods Newly diagnosed pre-diabetes patients (n = 120) with hypertriglyceridaemia (plasma triglyceride levels between 1.8 and 4.5 mmol/l) were randomly assigned by computer-generated randomization sequence to either control group (no intervention), fenofibrate group (200 mg once a day), metformin group (500 mg three times a day) or diet-controlled group (diet recommendation). Plasma biochemistry examination was performed every 2 months. The primary endpoint was the outcome of the natural course of pre-diabetes, evaluated by oral glucose tolerance test after 6-month follow-up. Results Twenty subjects in the fenofibrate group, 24 subjects in the metformin group and 25 subjects in both the diet-controlled group and the control group finished the trial. Fenofibrate, metformin and diet control had protective effects on hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes, evidenced by 53.3, 70 and 30% participants regressed to normoglycaemia, respectively. The effects of fenofibrate and metformin were comparable (P > 0.05), while diet control was less effective (P < 0.05). Liver damage occurred in six subjects in the fenofibrate group and gastrointestinal symptoms occurred in four subjects in the metformin group. No serious adverse events occurred. Conclusion Controlling lipotoxicity by fenofibrate could effectively ameliorate the natural course of hypertriglyceridaemic pre-diabetes.
  J.N. Felver-Gant , R.L. Dennis , J. Zhao and H.W. Cheng
  Heat stress (HS) causes oxidative damage, increasing mortality and reducing productivity in chickens. The objective of this study was to determine the benefits of antioxidant supplementation in laying hens during HS. Eighty 32-week-old W-36 White Leghorn hens were used in this study. Hens were randomly pair-housed in two adjacent rooms and fed a control diet (CF) or control diet mixed with Agrado Plus Ultra®, an antioxidant, at 160 mg/kg (AF) for two weeks. One room was then subjected to a hot climate (H) (33°C) for 8 days. Physical and physiological data were collected at day 1 and 8 during the treatment. Core body temperature was increased (p<0.0001) and BW (p<0.05) and liver weight (p<0.0001) were reduced in laying hens regardless of treatment. However, compared to its respective controls, the concentrations of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) were increased in H-AF hens (p< 0.01) but not in H-CF hens (p>0.05) at 8 days during the process of HS. Similarly, HSP70 mRNA expression tended to increase in H-AF hens only (p = 0.09). Heat stress reduced the concentrations of total CO2 and bicarbonate (p<0.05), indicating respiratory alkalosis and decreased vitamin A (p<0.01), vitamin E (p<0.0001) and glutathione peroxidase (p<0.05) concentrations but increased protein carbonyl concentrations (p<0.05), indicating protein oxidative damage. A temperature by feed interaction was observed in the concentrations of partial pressure CO2 (pCO2, p<0.05), superoxide dismutase (SOD, p = 0.06) and protein carbonyl (p = 0.1). Heat stress-caused decreases in pCO2 and SOD and increases in protein carbonyl concentrations were found in control hens but not in AF hens. These results suggest antioxidant supplementation attenuates oxidative stress response in laying hens. These data support the hypothesis that supplemental antioxidants improve hen well-being by reducing HS associated physical and physiological damage.
  Y. Yuan and J. Zhao
  In China, rural residential energy consumption is affected by economic and social factors. Cooking and heating are the essential energy-using activities for the living in northern China and contributes most of the energy consumed in northern rural households. In this study based on data of rural energy consumption in 15 northern regions, some indices of energy supply and demand of rural cooking and heating are calculated. Results show that in northern rural households, fossil energy plays an important role in cooking and heating and the annual heat amount demanded for house-heating is always larger than for cooking. However, the energy-using efficiencies of rural heating and cooking need to be improved. For the comparison of provincial administratives, Beijing, Xinjiang and Shanxi are at the higher level of rural annual per capita energy-using while rural households in northeastern regions use more renewable energy (mainly crop residue) than other regions.
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