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Articles by J. Zhang
Total Records ( 22 ) for J. Zhang
  J. Zhang , L. H. Wu and M. Y. Wang
  With focus on maximizing grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa L.) production, especially in China, information available in the literature on how nitrogen (N) fertilization of rice crops affects biofortification of iron (Fe) and (Zn) in grains is limited. The objective of the experiment was to investigate to what degree application of N fertilizer attained the optimum Fe and Zn concentration in rice grains as well as grain yield under pot conditions. Two rice cultivars of the indica `Zhenong 952` and the japonica `Bing 98110`, grown widely in the area of the Yangtse River Delta in southern China, and fertilized with four rates of urea (0, 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 g N pot-1), were investigated. The results showed that, in the pot trails, the optimum application of N alone on rice crops could increase the concentration of Fe in the polished rice. By considering both health and commercial reasons, when N application reached 1.00 g pot-1, the optimal Fe and Zn concentrations were attained as well as grain yield for `Zhenong 952`, and for `Bing 98110` the optimum N application was 1.50 g pot-1. Fe appeared not to be so easily mobilized as Zn in the plant. The ratio of Zn deposited in the brown rice was about 40% of total Zn in the plant, irrespective of N application. However, deposited Fe was only about 3% of total Fe. Fe concentration in brown rice was only about frac12 that in rice husk, 1/5 that in peduncles, 1/10 that in leaves, and only a little more than 1% of that in roots. These results suggested if we wanted to increase the amount of Fe in grains the translocation mechanism of Fe in rice plant must be clearly understood first.
  J. Zhang , M. Y. Wang and L. H. Wu
  The available literature on whether or not foliar iron (Fe)-containing solutions can be one of the sustainable and low-cost strategies to increase Fe concentration in edible portions of staple food crops consisted of a few previous studies of Fe in plants, and mainly focused on Fe-deficiency remedies. Our experiment was carried out to examine the effects of foliar Fe-containing solutions on Fe enrichment and on the nutritional, cooking, and eating qualities of polished rice of the japonica 'Bing 98110' planted on a powdery loam soil under pot conditions. The results showed that Fe concentration in polished rice could be enriched with foliar Fe(II)-amino acids [the main formulation was the complex of 0.1% (w/v) FeSO47H2O and 0.4% (w/v) compound amino acids, 18.6% N] application. Compared with the control, Fe concentration increased significantly, by 88.0%. Meanwhile, the positive effects on Zn concentration and protein and amino acid content improvement were found with boric acid (H3BO3, B) added to Fe(II)-amino acids foliar application. In detail, Zn concentration significantly increased (19.6%), and protein and lysine were increased significantly by 30.1 and 35.1%, respectively. Also the cooking and eating qualities were improved with foliar Fe(II)-amino acids and B compound spray.
  H Li , Q Liu , X Hu , D Feng , S Xiang , Z He , J Zhou , X Ding , C Zhou and J. Zhang

Mouse zinc finger CCHC domain containing 12 gene (ZCCHC12) has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, and human ZCCHC12 was reported to be related to non-syndromic X-linked mental retardation (NS-XLMR). However, the details of how human ZCCHC12 involve in the NS-XLMR still remain unclear. In this study, we identified a novel nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the middle of human ZCCHC12 protein which is responsible for the nuclear localization. Multiple-tissue northern blot analysis indicated that ZCCHC12 is highly expressed in human brain. Furthermore, in situ hybridization showed that ZCCHC12 is specifically expressed in neuroepithelium of forebrain, midbrain, and diencephalon regions of mouse E10.5 embryos. Luciferase reporter assays demonstrated that ZCCHC12 enhanced the transcriptional activities of activator protein 1 (AP-1) and cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) as a co-activator. In conclusion, we identified a new NLS in ZCCHC12 and figured out that ZCCHC12 functions as a transcriptional co-activator of AP-1 and CREB.

  Z Zhang , Q Li , F Liu , Y Sun and J. Zhang

The aim of this study was to investigate the prevention of diet-induced obesity by a high safflower oil diet and adipocytic gene expression in mice. Forty 3-week-old C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CON, 5% lard + 5% safflower oil), high lard group (LAR, 45% lard + 5% safflower oil), and high safflower oil group (SAF, 45% safflower oil + 5% lard). After 10 weeks, 10 mice of the LAR group were switched to high safflower oil diet (LAR–SAF). Ten weeks later, glucose tolerance tests were performed by intraperitoneal injection of glucose. Circulating levels of lipid and insulin were measured and white adipose tissues were taken for gene chip and reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction analysis. The LAR group showed higher body weight, adiposity index, insulin, and lipids than the CON group (P < 0.05). The body weight in the LAR–SAF group decreased after dietary reversal. The plasma biochemical profiles decreased in the LAR–SAF and SAF groups (P < 0.05) compared with those of the LAR group. The blood glucose level of the LAR–SAF group was reduced during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test compared with that of the LAR group. The LAR–SAF group had lower levels of Orexin and Ghrelin gene expression, whereas the level of PPAR gene expression was significantly enhanced compared with that of the LAR group. So, the SAF diet can alter adipocytic adiposity-related gene expression and result in effective amelioration of diet-induced obesity.

  Z.H. Zhao , S.F. Li , H.Y. Huang , C.M. Li and J. Zhang
  Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of Nuclear receptor Co-activator 1 gene (NCOA1), gene of shaobo breed were detected by using PCR-SSCP and sequencing reaction and its associations with semen quality was done. Three SNPs were detected, T/A substitution at position 10155007 in exon 3 and resulted in 3 genotypes AA, AB and BB, C/G substitution at position 108273257 in exon 10 and resulted in 3 genotypes CC, CD and DD, C/T substitution at position 108273423 in exon 12 and 3 genotypes of SS, ST and TT were found. AA genotype had more semen volume than BB (p<0.05) and it had significantly higher than AB at sperm density (p<0.05). No difference was found between CC, CD and DD (p>0.05) at semen volume but CC significantly higher than DD at sperm density (p<0.05). Sperm volume and sperm density among genotypes of SS, ST and TT were no significant significance (p>0.05). There were no significant differences at the sperm motility and the rate of abnormal sperm between all different genotype and haplotype (p>0.05). The haplotype effect of AACC was higher than the single genotype effect and significant higher than BBDD at sperm density and semen volume (p<0.05). We tentatively conclude that NCOA1 gene is the major gene affecting semen quality or linked to the major gene and the mutation could be used as the molecular genetic marker to select shaobo rooster for high semen quality.
  W Ma , S. K Kang , H Hricak , S. R Gerst and J. Zhang

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study is to present the radiographic findings in a series of 16 patients with complications associated with intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) treatment of bladder cancer.

CONCLUSION. Intravesical BCG-related complications such as granulomatous disease may show imaging findings mimicking primary or metastatic tumors in patients with bladder cancer. Radiologists should consider this possibility when imaging abnormalities are encountered in bladder cancer patients treated with intravesical BCG so that appropriate management can be administered and unnecessary procedures avoided.

  Y.J. Jian , Q.Y. Zhu , J. Zhang and Y.F. Wang
  A third-order analytical solution for the capillary gravity short crested waves with uniform current (the main current direction is along the vertical wall) in front of a vertical wall is derived through a perturbation expanding technique. The validity and advantage of the new solution were proved by comparing the results of wave profiles and wave pressures with those of Huang and Jia [H. Huang, F. Jia, The patterns of surface capillary gravity short-crested waves with uniform current fields in coastal waters, Acta Mech. Sinica 22 (2006) 433–441] and Hsu [J.R.C. Hsu, Y. Tsuchiya, R. Silvester, Third-order approximation to short-crested waves, J. Fluid Mech 90 (1979) 179–196]. The important influences of currents on the wave profiles, wave frequency, the ratio of maximum crest height to the total wave height, and wave pressure are investigated for both small-scale (for example, the incident wave wavelength is 9.35 cm) and larger-scale (for example, the incident wave wavelength is 5 m) short crested wave. By numerical computation, we find wave frequency of short crested wave system is greatly affected by incident wave amplitude, incident angle, water depth, surface tension coefficient and the strength of the currents for small-scale incident wave. Furthermore, for the larger-scale short crested wave system, the higher-order solution with uniform current is particularly important for the prediction of wave profile and wave pressure for different water depth and incident angle. Computational results show that with the increase of the current speed, the crests of wave profile and wave pressure become more and more steep. In some cases, the crest value of wave pressure with strong current would be larger about six times than that of no current. Therefore, ocean engineers should consider the short crested wave-current load on marine constructs carefully.
  J Kong , X Li , Y Wang , W Sun and J. Zhang

Objective  To assess the impact of digital problem-based learning (PBL) cases on student learning in ophthalmology courses.

Methods  Ninety students were randomly divided into 3 classes (30 students per class). The first class studied under a didactic model. The other 2 classes were divided into 6 groups (10 students per group) and received PBL teaching; 3 groups studied via cases presented in digital form and the others studied via paper-form cases. The results of theoretical and case analysis examinations were analyzed using the 2 test. Student performance on the interval practice was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Questionnaires were used to evaluate student and facilitator perceptions.

Results  Students in the digital groups exhibited better performance in the practice procedures according to tutorial evaluations compared with the other groups (P < .05). The 2 PBL classes had significantly higher mean results of theoretical and case analysis examinations (P < .001), but there was no significant difference between the 2 PBL classes. Ninety-three percent of students in the digital groups (vs 73% in the paper groups) noted that the cases greatly stimulated their interest.

Conclusions  Introducing PBL into ophthalmology could improve educational quality and effectiveness. Digital PBL cases stimulate interest and motivate students to further improve diagnosis and problem-handling skills.

  Z Hong , M Shi , K. A Chung , J. F Quinn , E. R Peskind , D Galasko , J Jankovic , C. P Zabetian , J. B Leverenz , G Baird , T. J Montine , A. M Hancock , H Hwang , C Pan , J Bradner , U. J Kang , P. H Jensen and J. Zhang

Biomarkers are urgently needed for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression in Parkinson’s disease. Both DJ-1 and -synuclein, two proteins critically involved in Parkinson’s disease pathogenesis, have been tested as disease biomarkers in several recent studies with inconsistent results. These have been largely due to variation in the protein species detected by different antibodies, limited numbers of patients in some studies, or inadequate control of several important variables. In this study, the nature of DJ-1 and -synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid was studied by a combination of western blotting, gel filtration and mass spectrometry. Sensitive and quantitative Luminex assays detecting most, if not all, species of DJ-1 and -synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid were established. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of DJ-1 and -synuclein from 117 patients with Parkinson’s disease, 132 healthy individuals and 50 patients with Alzheimer’s disease were analysed using newly developed, highly sensitive Luminex technology while controlling for several major confounders. A total of 299 individuals and 389 samples were analysed. The results showed that cerebrospinal fluid DJ-1 and -synuclein levels were dependent on age and influenced by the extent of blood contamination in cerebrospinal fluid. Both DJ-1 and -synuclein levels were decreased in Parkinson’s patients versus controls or Alzheimer’s patients when blood contamination was controlled for. In the population aged ≥65 years, when cut-off values of 40 and 0.5 ng/ml were chosen for DJ-1 and -synuclein, respectively, the sensitivity and specificity for patients with Parkinson’s disease versus controls were 90 and 70% for DJ-1, and 92 and 58% for -synuclein. A combination of the two markers did not enhance the test performance. There was no association between DJ-1 or -synuclein and the severity of Parkinson’s disease. Taken together, this represents the largest scale study for DJ-1 or -synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid so far, while using newly established sensitive Luminex assays, with controls for multiple variables. We have demonstrated that total DJ-1 and -synuclein in human cerebrospinal fluid are helpful diagnostic markers for Parkinson’s disease, if variables such as blood contamination and age are taken into consideration.

  A. Marcil , C. Gadoury , J. Ash , J. Zhang , A. Nantel and M. Whiteway
  Phagocytosis of Candida albicans by either primary bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages or RAW 264.7 cells upregulated transcription of PRA1, which encodes a cell wall/membrane-associated antigen previously described as a fibrinogen binding protein. However, a pra1 null mutant was still able to bind fibrinogen, showing that Pra1p is not uniquely required for fibrinogen binding. As well, Pra1 tagged with green fluorescent protein did not colocalize with AlexaFluor 546-labeled human fibrinogen, and while PRA1 expression was inhibited when Candida was grown in fetal bovine serum-containing medium, Candida binding to fibrinogen was activated by these conditions. Therefore, it appears that Pra1p can play at most a minor role in fibrinogen binding to C. albicans. PRA1 gene expression is induced in vitro by alkaline pH, and therefore its activation in phagosomes suggested that phagosome maturation was suppressed by the presence of Candida cells. LysoTracker red-labeled organelles failed to fuse with phagosomes containing live Candida, while phagosomes containing dead Candida underwent a normal phagosome-to-phagolysosome maturation. Immunofluorescence staining with the early/recycling endosomal marker transferrin receptor (CD71) suggested that live Candida may escape macrophage destruction through the inhibition of phagolysosomal maturation.
  J. Xu , J. Zhang , T. Harvey and J. Young
  This study surveys current asynchronous collaboration tools and their features. Asynchronous collaboration tools, that allow users to collaborate at different times, have evolved from email, discussion board, weblogs and Wiki to advanced tools that integrate multiple functions to make collaboration more powerful and convenient. A great number of such tools have been developed that provide a variety of different features. This study investigates the available features of these tools, the meanings of these features and identifies common and key features. We organize features by four major functional categories: communication, information sharing, electronic calendar and project management. We tested ten asynchronous collaboration tools that present different ways of collaboration and different sets of features. Data collected in this study come from our experiments and online documents. This study will help users gain knowledge of what current asynchronous collaboration tools have to offer and help them select right tools based on their needs.
  J. Xu and J. Zhang
  This study investigates the features of synchronous collaboration tools, the meanings of the features and identifies common and key characteristics of synchronous collaboration tools. We organize features by the six stages of meeting process: starting meeting, communication, presentation, interaction, administration and ending meeting. We test nine collaboration tools that are today`s market leaders. Data collected in this study come from our experiments and online documents. This study will help professionals gain knowledge of what current online meeting market has to offer and aid them make right decisions in selecting tools based on their meeting needs.
  H Zhang , Y. J Hou , S. Y Han , E. C Zhang , K Huebner and J. Zhang

The mammalian Nit1 protein is homologous to plant and bacterial nitrilases. In flies and worms, Nit1 is fused to the 5' end of Fhit, suggesting that Nit1 may functionally interact with the Fhit pathway. Fhit has been shown to play a role of a tumor suppressor. Somatic loss of Fhit in human tissues is associated with a wide variety of cancers. Deletion of Fhit results in a predisposition to induced and spontaneous tumors in mice. It has been suggested that Nit1 collaborates with Fhit in tumor suppression. Similar to mice lacking Fhit, Nit1-deficient mice are more sensitive to carcinogen-induced tumors. It was previously shown that ectopic expression of Nit1 or Fhit led to caspase activation and apoptosis, and that both proteins may play a role in DNA damage-induced apoptosis. In this study, we analyzed the physiological function of Nit1 in T cells using Nit1-knockout mice. Nit1-deficient T cells can undergo apoptosis induced by DNA damage due to irradiation and chemical treatment. However, apoptosis induced by Fas or Ca++ signals appeared to be compromised. Additionally, Nit1 deficiency resulted in T cell hyperproliferative responses induced by TCR stimulation. The expressions of T cell activation markers were elevated in Nit1–/– T cells. There was a spontaneous cell cycle entry and enhanced cell cycle progression in Nit1–/– T cells. These data indicate that Nit1 is a novel negative regulator in primary T cells.

  D Xie , H Bai , L Liu , X Xie , J Ayello , X Ma and J. Zhang

Influenza affects most of the world's population annually, often causing a secondary infection, but pathological mechanisms of influenza virus infection remain unclear. We have found that influenza viruses have a selective preference for infecting monocytes and mature immune effector cells. This paper provides evidence that influenza virus infection increases the expression of granzyme B (GrB) in monocytes, activated T and B cells. All GrB+ cells had cytolytic function. GrB+CD62Lhigh central memory (TCM) cells were fast response population to virus infection when compared with GrB+CD62Llow population. The influenza virus-infected PBMC could be killed by GrB+ cells. We propose the following mechanism for influenza: (i) influenza virus within the respiratory tract overcomes humoral defenses; (ii) free virus is directly engulfed by the immune system effector cells and free virus also infects epithelial cells; (iii) virus-infected epithelial cells and the immune system cells are killed by cytotoxic cells. These indicated that an immune system that was combating a virus infection needs to sacrifice some of its immune system cells. Therefore, influenza viruses might temporally destroy the human immune system's line of defense, resulting in susceptibility to a secondary infection. This might be a prevalent mechanism existing in cell-mediated immune responses.

  Q Sun , M Hang , W Xu , W Mao , X Hang , M Li and J. Zhang

This Phase II study was conducted to evaluate the effects of irinotecan plus capecitabine in patients with advanced gastric cancer (AGC) who had received a first-line therapy of 5-fluorouracil/platinum regimen.


Patients received capecitabine 1000 mg/m2 b.i.d. on days 1–14 followed by a 7-day rest period, and irinotecan 100 mg/m2 was administered through a 90 min intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8, based on a 3-week cycle.


Forty-six (95.8%) of the 48 patients were assessable for response. Thirteen cases of partial response were confirmed, response rate of 27.1% (95% CI, 14.5–39.7%). The median follow-up period was 25.2 months. The median time to progression and overall survival for all patients were 4.1 months (95% CI, 3.4–4.8 months) and 7.6 months (95% CI, 5.1–10.1 months). Grade 3 diarrhea and hand-foot syndrome occurred in eight (17.4%) and two (4.3%) patients, respectively. The most common Grade 3/4 hematological adverse event was neutropenia in four (8.7%) patients. There were no treatment-related deaths during this study.


Irinotecan plus capecitabine was a relatively active and tolerable regimen as a second-line chemotherapy for AGC. Further investigation of this regimen is warranted, including the addition of new biological agents such as bevacizumab or cetuximab to improve the salvage regimen.

  C Zhou , S Ren , S Zhou , L Zhang , C Su , Z Zhang , Q Deng and J. Zhang

The purpose of the study was to investigate whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms of deoxyribonucleic acid repair gene excision repair cross-complementing group 1 at codon 118 and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 at codon 241 affected clinical outcomes in advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients receiving first-line platinum-based chemotherapy.


A total of 130 patients treated with platinum-based doublets were examined for genotyping of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 118 and X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 241 in peripheral blood lymphocytes with the method of the TaqMan assay plus the real-time polymerase chain reaction method. Multivariate logistic or Cox's regression analyses were used to adjust for possible confounding variables.


There were no differences in clinical characteristics among the different single-nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall response rate in the 130 patients was 20% with 85.4% of disease control rate. Followed up to 31 March 2008, there were 47 patients still alive. Overall survival was 15 months. No relationship was found between excision repair cross-complementing group 1 or X-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and tumor response to platinum-based chemotherapy. A significant correlation was found between excision repair cross-complementing group 1 118C/T single-nucleotide polymorphisms and survival (P = 0.003). In the multivariate model, the survival was highly related with excision repair cross-complementing group 1 118 C/T or T/T genotypes and tumor response to chemotherapy.


Overall survival was significantly improved in the patients with excision repair cross-complementing group 1 118 T/T or C/T treated by platinum-based chemotherapy.

  Q. Wang , H.F. Li , Y.L. Dai , K.W. Chen , B.L. Li , Z.Y. Wang and J. Zhang
  The study was undertaken to assess dietary CP and ME concentrations for optimum growth performance and carcass characteristics of Gaoyou ducklings. In a 3x3 factorial arrangement, three hundred and sixty zero-day-old Gaoyou ducklings were randomly assigned to experimental diets with 11.70, 11.90 and 12.12 MJ of ME kg-1 of diet; each contained 18.0, 19.0 and 20.0% CP, respectively, from 0-28 days of age. Each dietary treatment had 4 replicates. Body weight and feed consumptions were measured at every weekend, from 0-28 days of age and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 28 days of age. The result showed that ducklings on a diet with 11.70 and 11.90 MJ of ME kg-1 at 0-28 days of age exhibited greater BW gain than this diet with 12.12 MJ of ME kg-1 (p<0.01), though BW gain was not different among 11.70 and 11.90 MJ of ME kg-1 of diet. Mean BW gain of birds fed 18.0, 19.0 and 20.0% CP diets was significantly different (p<0.001). Feed intake was influenced by dietary ME levels (p<0.000) also. Feed intake of birds fed 18.0% CP diets was higher than those of birds on 19.0 and 20.0% CP diets (p<0.01). Feed conversion ratios of birds fed on 11.70 and 11.90 MJ of ME kg-1 of diet were better than those fed on 12.12 MJ of ME kg-1 (p<0.001). Feed conversion ratios of birds fed on 18.0% CP diets were better than those fed on 19.0 and 20.0% CP diets. In the study, there were significant interactions between dietary CP and ME on growth performance. There was a direct relationship between dietary ME levels and eviscerated carcass percentage (p<0.014), abdominal fat percentage (p<0.000) and breast weight (p<0.037). But the half-eviscerated carcass percentage, eviscerated carcass percentage, breast and leg meat percentage were not influenced by dietary CP concentration. Thus, diets with 11.70 MJ of ME kg-1 and 18.0% CP were used more efficiently from 0-28 days of age by Gaoyou ducklings.
  Y.N. Min , H.L. Li , L. Li , Z.Y. Niu , J.J. Wang , S.K. Liu , J. Zhang and F.Z. Liu
  This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary DDGS levels on small intestinal morphology of broilers. A total of 720 Cobb 48 male broilers were used in this experiment. Birds were fed diets formulated to contain 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% DDGS, respectively for a period of 6 week. On day 21 and 42, significant differences were observed in Villus Height (VH), Crypt Depth (CD) and the ratio of villus height to crypt depth (VCR) in duodenum, jejunum and ileum except for ileum on day 42. About 10-15% DDGS inclusion level showed better VH, CD and VCR for broiler intestinal morphology. Therefore, dietary added with DDGS can improve intestinal morphology, up till to 15% DDGS concentrations were considered to be suitable for broiler starter and grower age.
  To evaluate the temporal patterns of N deficiencies in corn and assess the ability of remote sensing to diagnose N deficiencies during the vegetative growth of corn, three field-scale experiments were conducted with various rates (56, 112, and 168 kg N ha−1), timing (early and late applications) and placement (injected into soil and dribbled on soil surface) of N fertilization in a split-plot design. Relationships between canopy reflectance during the growing season and yield data at the end of growing season were studied for different treatments. Results showed significant variation in both grain yields and canopy reflectance among the three cornfields. The N fertilization made in early June resulted in low canopy reflectance in early July, but the differences disappeared as the season progressed. The effect of N rates on canopy reflectance was not significant in early July but it gradually became detectable in mid-July and thereafter. The fertilizer placement had a significant effect on grain yields only in one field but not on canopy reflectance in all three fields. These observations suggest that the deficiency of N developed under field conditions is a dynamic phenomenon, which adds complexity for accurately defining “N deficiency” and effectively developing management strategies for in-season correction. Remote sensing throughout the season helps collect information about important interactions that have not been given enough attention in the past.
  D Sheng , J Jao , M Li , P Xu and J. Zhang

Apart from inhibiting RecA activity through protein–protein interactions, Deinococcus radiodurans RecX inhibits the expression of RecA and two other anti-oxidant proteins. To identify the repertoire of proteins regulated by RecX, comparative proteomic studies were undertaken on a wild-type strain (R1) and recX null mutant (RecX). Two-dimensional electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF identification revealed 35 differentially expressed proteins, including 12 up-regulated and 23 down-regulated proteins in the mutant. The 12 up-regulated proteins are DNA repair proteins, stress response proteins, and metabolism-related proteins. Most of these have been previously characterized as ionizing radiation-induced proteins. The 23 down-regulated proteins are mainly involved in cellular metabolism, and some of these are key enzymes in the metabolic pathway. Thus, RecX is suggested to be involved in the switch between DNA damage response and normal metabolism in D. radiodurans.

  F. Chen , J. Zhang , A. Aoyama , T. Okamoto , T. Fujinaga and T. Bando

Objective: A method to compensate for the donor shortage may be the utilization of donation after cardiac death. The control of lung injury against warm ischemia is crucial in manipulating donors after cardiac death. Nebulization is a simple and feasible drug delivery route after cardiac death. Herein we have examined the potential effect of nebulized milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, on pulmonary warm ischemia.

Materials and Methods: Deeply anesthetized rats were euthanized by exsanguination. Lungs were exposed to warm ischemia with ventilation up to 2 hours. Milrinone was nebulized for 10 minutes at the beginning of warm ischemia (n = 5). In the control group (n = 5), normal saline was nebulized for the same time. At given intervals, the lungs were partially resected to measure adenine nucleotide and cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels.

Results: In both groups, lung tissue cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels decreased significantly at 2 hours after warm ischemia; however, there was no significant difference between the groups. Lung tissue adenosine triphosphate levels significantly decreased at 2 hours after ischemia in the control group, while they did not drop up to 2 hours in the milrinone group. Further, lung tissue adenosine triphosphate levels at 2 hours after ischemia were higher in the milrinone group than the control group.

Conclusions: Our results confirmed that milrinone nebulization during warm ischemia maintained lung tissue adenosine triphosphate levels. Therefore, milrinone nebulization may have potential for lung protection against warm ischemia.
  C. Zhu , H. Xu , J. Zhang , K. Wang and P. Zhu
  Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) molecules belong to intracellular proteins that inhibit Janus kinase as well as signal transduction and activators of transcription pathways. In this study, we investigated whether SOCS-1–silenced dendritic cells (DCs) prolonged allograft survival in rat intestinal transplantation. Donor bone marrow–derived DCs were genetically transfected with SOCS-1 siRNA using liposomes. The level of SOCS-1 expression was quantitated by Western blots. DC function was assessed by MTT in mixed leukocyte reactions. We injected donor-derived SOCS-1 silenced DCs 7 days before heterotopic intestinal transplantation between SD donors and Wistar recipients. We compared untransfected DCs and silenced DCs to suppress allogeneic mixed leukocyte reactions. Recipients pretreated with SOCS-1–silenced DCs showed moderate survival prolongation with a mean allograft survival of 18.3 ± 5.3 days (P < .05), compared with 6.4 ± 2.0 days in the control group and 7.2 ± 2.1 days in a control siRNA transfection DC group. The difference between untreated DCs group and the control group was not significant. In summary, SOCS-1 silenced DCs induced allogeneic T-cell hyporesponsiveness in vitro, promoting allograft survival in rat intestinal transplantation.
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