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Articles by J. Yang
Total Records ( 5 ) for J. Yang
  T Zou , W Yang , Z Hou and J. Yang

Elevation of blood homocysteine levels (hyperhomocysteinemia) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. One of the mechanisms by which homocysteine induces atherosclerosis is to promote the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in a reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. It has been shown that homocysteine induces the production of ROS through the activation of NAD(P)H oxidases in VSMCs. In this study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in the activation of NAD(P)H oxidases. Homocysteine promoted DNA synthesis in VSMCs. Inhibition of ROS by N-acetyl-l-cysteine (an antioxidant) and apocynin (an inhibitor of NAD(P)H oxidases) significantly blocked homocysteine-induced proliferation in VSMCs. Homocysteine induced a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). p38 MAPK in turn activated NAD(P)H oxidases by inducing the phosphorylation of p47phox, resulting in the generation of ROS. ROS induced the phosphorylation of Akt, which was probably responsible for proliferation in VSMCs. These findings demonstrate that homocysteine induces an increase in the activity of NAD(P)H oxidases in VSMCs by activating p38 MAPK and enhancing the phosphorylation of p47phox.

  J. Yang and R.L. Gadi
  Purple-Fleshed Sweet Potatoes (PFSP) (Ipomoea batatas) are rich sources of acylated anthocyanins. Anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity and total phenols as well as color characteristics of PFSP were determined by UV/visible or fluorescence spectrophotometry and chromametry. The flesh of PFSP cultivar Terlaje produced in the Western Pacific contained total anthocyanins at 0.40 mg g-1 fresh weight. PFSP Powders processed by directly freeze-drying or first steaming and then freeze- or hot air-drying contained anthocyanins at 0.94-0.97 mg g-1, Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) at 70.0-93.0 μmole Trolox g-1, Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) at 11.8-12.7 μmole Trolox g-1 and total phenols at 4-5 mg gallic acid g-1 dry weight. PFSP powder processed by hot air-drying without steaming lost 65% of anthocyanin content, 35% of antioxidant activity and 40% of total phenols. Steaming of PFSP roots at atmosphere pressure for 0.5 h increased 40% of anthocyanin content and enhanced the purple color of PFSP. Dehydration at 60°C for 24 h retained anthocyanin content and purple color of steamed PFSP. Both steaming and dehydration increased the percentage of polymeric anthocyanins in PFSP. The results suggested the PFSP powders exhibited potentials as colorants and neutraceutical ingredients for formulated foods.
  R. Zang , J. Bai , H. Xu , L. Zhang , J. Yang , L. Yang , J. Lu and J. Wu
  Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is the most accurate method of quantifying gene expression, provided that suitable endogenous controls are used to normalize the data. To date, no reference genes have been validated for development in Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep (Ovis aries). We have determined the expression profiles of 7 housekeeping genes as candidate reference genes (Actb, Ywhaz, Sdha, Gapdh, Tubb2, Pgk1 and 18S rRNA) in 7 developmental stages (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11 and 13 months of age) and 6 tissues (omental fat, liver, tail fat, thigh muscle, subcutaneous fat (backfat above 12th and 13th rib) and perirenal fat) in Lanzhou fat-tailed sheep. The software packages geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to evaluate the stability of potential reference genes; each produced comparable results. Initial results showed several of the candidate genes exhibited stable expression throughout development while Actb was identified as the least stable gene. Further analysis with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper identified Gapdh, Tubb2, Sdha and Ywhaz as acceptably stable in gene expression. Comparison of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (Dgat1) expression data normalized with geometric averages obtained from combinations of either Gapdh, Sdha, Ywhaz or Tubb2, Sdha, Ywhaz showed no significant differences, indicating that these two combinations are similar. The data provided in this paper may also be useful in guiding researchers performing gene expression in other species of sheep.
  J.L. Bai , J.Y. Jiang and J. Yang
  It is well known that yak is originated from China but fact regarding its taxonomy and evolutionary relationship with other species of Bovini, is largely disputed. Here, we cloned 1140 bp complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene in Tianzhu with yak (JF946750). The origin, taxonomy of the Chinese yak and its phylogenetic relationship with other 8 species of Bovini were discussed based on the cytb. Results showed that Tianzhu white yak had high identity to Qinghai black breed with the minimum sequence divergence of 0.5%. The sequence divergence between yak and cattle/zebu (8.0-8.5%) was higher than that between yak and American bison (3.4-4.1%). Phylogeny analysis also found that domestic yak and wild yak clustered first of all, then gathered with American bison and other Bovini species, indicating yak and American bison were higher genetic comparability than that of other species. The findings sustained the idea that in the choice of nomenclature both the domestic yak and the wild yak belong to the subgenus of Poephagus. The approximate divergence time between domestic yak and wild yak was 0.50 Million Years Ago (MYA), while the yak and cattle/zebu, American bison, European bison, Asian buffalo/African buffalo was 4.00-4.25, 1.7-2.05, 3.80-3.85 and 6.70-6.95 MYA, respectively. We speculated that the ancient yak lived in the northeastern part of Eurasia during the Quaternary had been shifted south to the cold area of the Qinghai Tibetan Plateau (QTP) during the metaphase of the Pleistocene era. Some of them acclimated to today’s wild yak, the others were domesticated by the ancient Qiang people at least 4500 years ago. The sequential evolution could be predicted that buffalo was first to divided into Asian buffalo and African buffalo among the species of Bovini during the end of Miocene and the early of Pliocene. In the end of Pliocene, the Bovini genera were evolved to Bos, Bison and Poephagus. Poephagus which branched off from the middle of Pleiocene, was the latest evolved genera among the Bovini species.
  J. Yang and D. Zhang
  In this study, a novel energy-balancing unequal clustering protocol (EB-UCP) for wireless sensor networks is presented. EB-UCP achieves a good performance in terms of lifetime by unequal clustering and balancing the energy load among all the nodes. An unequal clustering algorithm from probability view is employed to form clusters. Clusters closer to the sink node have smaller sizes than those farther away from the sink node, thus cluster heads closer to the sink node can preserve more energy for the purpose of inter-cluster data forwarding. In addition, the distribution of sensor nodes is deployed according to the energy-balancing layered algorithm and therefore the energy consumption in every layer is nearly equal. Finally, an energy-efficient data transmission mechanism on basis of the above is proposed. Simulation studies show that EB-UCP leads to more uniform energy dissipation and enlarges the lifetime of networks than EEUC (Energy Efficient Unequal Clustering) and LEACH (Low-Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy).
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