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Articles by J. Wang
Total Records ( 21 ) for J. Wang
  R. Daniulaityte , R.S. Falck , J. Wang and R.G. Carlson
  This study, conducted in Columbus, Ohio, identified the predictors of current (past 30 day) illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids among young individuals (n = 402) with a history of MDMA/ecstasy use who were recruited in 2002–2003 using respondent-driven sampling. To be eligible, participants had to be 18–30 years old, not involved in a drug abuse treatment, and report MDMA/ecstasy use at least once in the past 6 months. About 81% reported lifetime, and more than 31% reported current illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Logistic regression analysis revealed that illicit use of pharmaceutical tranquilizers and pharmaceutical stimulants were the strongest predictors of illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids. Risk of pharmaceutical opioid use was also greater among those who had higher levels of depressive symptoms and reported current use of hallucinogens and inhalants. Our findings suggest that the non-medical use of pharmaceutical opioids is a part of polydrug use practices that often incorporate illicit use of other prescription drugs. The observed relationship between depressive symptoms and illicit use of pharmaceutical opioids may have important implications for prevention programming and should be examined in future research.
  L Xia , M Zhou , T. F Kalhorn , H. T. B Ho and J. Wang
 

Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a novel polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports organic cations and the purine nucleoside, adenosine. PMAT is expressed in the kidney, but the specific localization and function of this transporter in renal cells are unclear. In this study, we developed a polyclonal antibody toward a 14-amino acid sequence in the last intracellular loop of PMAT and determined the precise cellular localization of PMAT in human and rat kidneys. Surprisingly, we found that the PMAT protein was predominantly expressed in the glomerulus with minimal expression in tubular cells. Within the glomerulus, dual-color immunofluorescence labeling showed that the PMAT protein was specifically localized to the visceral glomerular epithelial cells, i.e., podocytes. There was no significant PMAT immunoreactivity in mesangial or glomerular endothelial cells. We further showed that puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN), a classic podocyte toxin that induces massive proteinuria and severe glomerulopathy, is transported by PMAT. Expression of PMAT in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells significantly increased cell sensitivity to PAN. Decynium 22, a potent PMAT inhibitor, abolished PAN toxicity in PMAT-expressing cells. Together, our data suggest that PMAT is specifically expressed in podocytes and may play an important role in PAN-induced kidney injury.

  H. Jiang , J. Wang , L. Che , Y. Lin , Z. Fang and De Wu
  The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different calcium sources and levels on performance and bioavailability of calcium and phosphorus in weaning piglets. A total of 90 LY (LandracexYorkshire) weaning piglets were randomly assigned to 2x8 factorial completely randomized arrangement. The two calcium sources were calcium carbonate or calcium citrate; Eight dietary calcium levels were 0.37, 0.50, 0.60, 0.70, 0.80, 0.90, 1.00 and 1.10%. Each treatment consisted of 3 replicate pens of 2 piglets. Digestibility trial was conducted from 29 to 32 day of experiment using the total collection method. No significant difference was observed on average daily gain, average daily feed intake and feed conversion rate in piglets (p>0.05) from calcium sources or interactions between calcium sources and calcium levels. There was a quadratic response of average daily gain to increasing calcium levels (p<0.05), with the optimum dietary calcium level of 0.6%. Piglets receiving dietary ranging from 0.37 to 0.80 had a higher calcium, phosphorus apparent digestibility than piglets receiving dietary ranging from 0.90 to 1.10%. Calcium citrate had significantly higher calcium apparent digestibility than calcium carbonate in piglets (p<0.05). It is concluded that calcium citrate is a good calcium source with comparable in bioavailability as calcium carbonate for weaning piglets. The piglets fed 0.6% calcium grew better, regardless of dietary calcium source.
  R Li , C Yu , Y Li , T. W Lam , S. M Yiu , K Kristiansen and J. Wang
 

Summary: SOAP2 is a significantly improved version of the short oligonucleotide alignment program that both reduces computer memory usage and increases alignment speed at an unprecedented rate. We used a Burrows Wheeler Transformation (BWT) compression index to substitute the seed strategy for indexing the reference sequence in the main memory. We tested it on the whole human genome and found that this new algorithm reduced memory usage from 14.7 to 5.4 GB and improved alignment speed by 20–30 times. SOAP2 is compatible with both single- and paired-end reads. Additionally, this tool now supports multiple text and compressed file formats. A consensus builder has also been developed for consensus assembly and SNP detection from alignment of short reads on a reference genome.

  J. Wang
 

In cluster analysis, one of the major challenges is to estimate the number of clusters. Most existing approaches attempt to minimize some distance-based dissimilarity measure within clusters. This article proposes a novel selection criterion that is applicable to all kinds of clustering algorithms, including distance based or non-distance based algorithms. The key idea is to select the number of clusters that minimizes the algorithm's instability, which measures the robustness of any given clustering algorithm against the randomness in sampling.Anovel estimation scheme for clustering instability is developed based on crossvalidation. The proposed selection criterion's effectiveness is demonstrated on a variety of numerical experiments, and its asymptotic selection consistency is established when the dataset is properly split.

  J. D. Goldhaber-Fiebert , H. Li , S. Ratanawijitrasin , S. Vidyasagar , X. Y. Wang , S. Aljunid , N. Shah , Z. Wang , S. Hirunrassamee , K. L. Bairy , J. Wang , S. Saperi , A. M. Nur and K. Eggleston
  Aims The prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has grown rapidly, but little is known about the drivers of inpatient spending in low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to compare the clinical presentation and expenditure on hospital admission for inpatients with a primary diagnosis of Type 2 DM in India, China, Thailand and Malaysia.
Methods We analysed data on adult, Type 2 DM patients admitted between 2005 and 2008 to five tertiary hospitals in the four countries, reporting expenditures relative to income per capita in 2007.
Results Hospital admission spending for diabetic inpatients with no complications ranged from 11 to 75% of per-capita income. Spending for patients with complications ranged from 6% to over 300% more than spending for patients without complications treated at the same hospital. Glycated haemoglobin was significantly higher for the uninsured patients, compared with insured patients, in India (8.6 vs. 8.1%), Hangzhou, China (9.0 vs. 8.1%), and Shandong, China (10.9 vs. 9.9%). When the hospital admission expenditures of the insured and uninsured patients were statistically different in India and China, the uninsured always spent less than the insured patients.
Conclusions With the rising prevalence of DM, households and health systems in these countries will face greater economic burdens. The returns to investment in preventing diabetic complications appear substantial. Countries with large out-of-pocket financing burdens such as India and China are associated with the widest gaps in resource use between insured and uninsured patients. This probably reflects both overuse by the insured and underuse by the uninsured.
  J. Wang , Y.-H. Li , M.-H. Li , J.-G. Zhao , Y.-Q. Bao and Jian Zhou
  Aims  To quantify the capillary permeability of the lower extremity muscles using dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in healthy control subjects without diabetes and patients with diabetes before and after percutaneous angioplasty.

Methods  Fifty-five patients (30 without diabetes, 25 with Type 2 diabetes with occluded vasculature of the lower extremities) were examined by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The transfer constant (K-trans) of the tibialis anterior muscle was determined before (for all patients) and after (for patients with diabetes only) percutaneous angioplasty of the intrapopliteal artery. Clinical assessment was also recorded. Statistical significant differences were defined at the level of P < 0.05.

Results  Before percutaneous angioplasty, patients with diabetes displayed significantly lower K-trans values in the tibialis anterior muscles than control subjects. Although percutaneous angioplasty increased the K-trans of these patients, the final values were still less than those of the control group. Differences were also observed between the groups in the Fontaine classification and ankle-brachial index, which reflect ischaemia in the lower extremities. After percutaneous angioplasty, these values were increased in the group with diabetes.

Conclusion  K-trans can be used to quantify changes in the capillary permeability of the lower extremity muscles, reflecting the microcirculation of the lower extremities.

  G. Gariepy , A. Malla , J. Wang , L. Messier , I. Strychar , A. Lesage and N. Schmitz
  Aims  Despite the detrimental effects of smoking on their health, a high number of adults with Type 2 diabetes continue to smoke. Identifying distinct types of smokers within this population could help tailor and target intervention programmes. This study examined whether smokers with Type 2 diabetes could be classified into different profiles based on smoking habits, socio-economic characteristics and lifestyle factors.

Methods  A sample of adults with self-reported diabetes was selected from random-digit dialling. Analyses included 383 participants with Type 2 diabetes who were current smokers. Information related to smoking, socio-economic status, health and lifestyle was collected by phone interview at baseline and 1 year later. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of smokers.

Results  We uncovered three meaningful classes of smokers: class 1, long-time smokers with long-standing diabetes (n = 105); class 2, heavy smokers with deprived socio-economic status, poor health and unhealthy lifestyle characteristics (n = 105); class 3, working and active smokers who were more recently diagnosed with diabetes (n = 173). Members of class 2 were significantly more likely to be disabled and depressed at baseline and 1 year later compared with other classes.

Conclusions  Different profiles of smokers exist among adults with Type 2 diabetes, each suggesting different cessation treatment needs. Distinguishing between these types of smokers may enable clinicians to tailor their approach to smoking cessation.

  R. Zhang , F. Jiang , C. Hu , W. Yu , J. Wang , C. Wang , X. Ma , S. Tang , Y. Bao , K. Xiang and W. Jia
  Aims  Metabolic disorders are independent risk factors for the development of Type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study is to test the association of LPIN1 variants with Type 2 diabetes and clinical characteristics in large samples of the Chinese population.

Methods  In the first stage, 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms within the LPIN1 region were selected and genotyped in 3700 Chinese Han participants. In the second stage, the single nucleotide polymorphisms showing significant association or trends towards association were genotyped in an additional 3122 samples for replication. Meta-analyses and genotype-phenotype association studies were performed after combining the data from the two stages.

Results  In the first stage, we detected that rs16857876 was significantly associated with Type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio of 0.806 (95% CI 0.677-0.958, P = 0.015), while rs11695610 showed a trend with Type 2 diabetes (odds ratio 0.846, 95% CI 0.709-1.009, P = 0.062). In the second stage, a similar effect of rs11695610 on Type 2 diabetes was observed (odds ratio 0.849, 95% CI 0.700-1.030, P = 0.096). The meta-analyses combining the information from the two stages showed a significant effect of rs11695610 on Type 2 diabetes with an odds ratio of 0.847 (95% CI 0.744-0.965, P = 0.012). Finally, the phenotype-genotype association analyses showed that rs11695610 was associated with 2-h plasma glucose (P = 0.040) and triglyceride levels (P = 0.034).

Conclusions  Our data implied that common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the LPIN1 region were associated with Type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits in the Chinese population.

  R Li , Y Li , X Fang , H Yang , J Wang , K Kristiansen and J. Wang
 

Next-generation massively parallel sequencing technologies provide ultrahigh throughput at two orders of magnitude lower unit cost than capillary Sanger sequencing technology. One of the key applications of next-generation sequencing is studying genetic variation between individuals using whole-genome or target region resequencing. Here, we have developed a consensus-calling and SNP-detection method for sequencing-by-synthesis Illumina Genome Analyzer technology. We designed this method by carefully considering the data quality, alignment, and experimental errors common to this technology. All of this information was integrated into a single quality score for each base under Bayesian theory to measure the accuracy of consensus calling. We tested this methodology using a large-scale human resequencing data set of 36x coverage and assembled a high-quality nonrepetitive consensus sequence for 92.25% of the diploid autosomes and 88.07% of the haploid X chromosome. Comparison of the consensus sequence with Illumina human 1M BeadChip genotyped alleles from the same DNA sample showed that 98.6% of the 37,933 genotyped alleles on the X chromosome and 98% of 999,981 genotyped alleles on autosomes were covered at 99.97% and 99.84% consistency, respectively. At a low sequencing depth, we used prior probability of dbSNP alleles and were able to improve coverage of the dbSNP sites significantly as compared to that obtained using a nonimputation model. Our analyses demonstrate that our method has a very low false call rate at any sequencing depth and excellent genome coverage at a high sequencing depth.

  G Zhang , G Guo , X Hu , Y Zhang , Q Li , R Li , R Zhuang , Z Lu , Z He , X Fang , L Chen , W Tian , Y Tao , K Kristiansen , X Zhang , S Li , H Yang , J Wang and J. Wang
 

Understanding the dynamics of eukaryotic transcriptome is essential for studying the complexity of transcriptional regulation and its impact on phenotype. However, comprehensive studies of transcriptomes at single base resolution are rare, even for modern organisms, and lacking for rice. Here, we present the first transcriptome atlas for eight organs of cultivated rice. Using high-throughput paired-end RNA-seq, we unambiguously detected transcripts expressing at an extremely low level, as well as a substantial number of novel transcripts, exons, and untranslated regions. An analysis of alternative splicing in the rice transcriptome revealed that alternative cis-splicing occurred in ~33% of all rice genes. This is far more than previously reported. In addition, we also identified 234 putative chimeric transcripts that seem to be produced by trans-splicing, indicating that transcript fusion events are more common than expected. In-depth analysis revealed a multitude of fusion transcripts that might be by-products of alternative splicing. Validation and chimeric transcript structural analysis provided evidence that some of these transcripts are likely to be functional in the cell. Taken together, our data provide extensive evidence that transcriptional regulation in rice is vastly more complex than previously believed.

  L. Zhang , Y. Luo , J. Hu , J. Wang , X. Liu and H. Pan
  CAPNS1 also known as CAPN4, encodes the small subunit of CAPN1 and CAPN2 which is required to maintain stability and activity of both calpains. But to date polymorphism of yak CAPNS1 has not been reported. In this study, variation in the exon 6-intron 6 region of CAPNS1 was investigated in 1059 yaks and Chinese cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conrmational Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP). Five PCR-SSCP patterns representing five allelic variations and containing four Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 6 were observed. Allele B was the most common allele with a frequency of 48.12% in yak and 93.29% in Chinese cattle whereas allele A and C were only in yak as well as allele D and E were rare (0.42 and 0.16%, respectively) and only in Chinese cattle. These results indicate that yak and cattle CAPNS1 is polymorphic and suggest further analysis is required to see if the variation detected affects their meat quality.
  J. Wang , D. Vijaykrishna , L. Duan , J. Bahl , J. X. Zhang , R. G. Webster , J. S. M. Peiris , H. Chen , Gavin J. D. Smith and Y. Guan
  The transmission of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus to Southeast Asian countries triggered the first major outbreak and transmission wave in late 2003, accelerating the pandemic threat to the world. Due to the lack of influenza surveillance prior to these outbreaks, the genetic diversity and the transmission pathways of H5N1 viruses from this period remain undefined. To determine the possible source of the wave 1 H5N1 viruses, we recently conducted further sequencing and analysis of samples collected in live-poultry markets from Guangdong, Hunan, and Yunnan in southern China from 2001 to 2004. Phylogenetic analysis of the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes of 73 H5N1 isolates from this period revealed a greater genetic diversity in southern China than previously reported. Moreover, results show that eight viruses isolated from Yunnan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to the clade 1 virus sublineage from Vietnam, Thailand, and Malaysia, while two viruses from Hunan in 2002 and 2003 were most closely related to viruses from Indonesia (clade 2.1). Further phylogenetic analyses of the six internal genes showed that all 10 of those viruses maintained similar phylogenetic relationships as the surface genes. The 10 progenitor viruses were genotype Z and shared high similarity (≥99%) with their corresponding descendant viruses in most gene segments. These results suggest a direct transmission link for H5N1 viruses between Yunnan and Vietnam and also between Hunan and Indonesia during 2002 and 2003. Poultry trade may be responsible for virus introduction to Vietnam, while the transmission route from Hunan to Indonesia remains unclear.
  W. Wan , C. Yang , H. Z. Jiang , H. M. Deng , J. Wang and J. Hao
  The synthesis and mesomorphic behaviour of a series of liquid crystals incorporating a trans-decalin ring and two aromatic rings linked by esters are reported. Structures of the new compounds were confirmed by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and elemental analysis. A single crystal of compound 18 was prepared to confirm the trans-conformation of the decalin ring. Liquid crystalline properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and polarising optical microscopy. All of the synthesised compounds except 17e are found to show only an enantiotropic nematic phase over a wide temperature range.
  J Huang and J. Wang
 

In this paper, we develop an equilibrium model for stock market liquidity and its impact on asset prices when constant market presence is costly. We show that even when agents' trading needs are perfectly matched, costly market presence prevents them from synchronizing their trades and hence gives rise to endogenous order imbalances and the need for liquidity. Moreover, the endogenous liquidity need, when it occurs, is characterized by excessive selling of significant magnitudes. Such liquidity-driven selling leads to market crashes in the absence of any aggregate shocks. Finally, we show that illiquidity in the market leads to high expected returns, negative and asymmetric return serial correlation, and a positive relation between trading volume and future returns. We also propose new measures of liquidity based on its asymmetric impact on prices and demonstrate a negative relation between these measures and expected stock returns.

  W Lu , P Ran , D Zhang , G Peng , B Li , N Zhong and J. Wang
 

In pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), Ca2+ influx through store-operated Ca2+ channels thought to be composed of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins is an important determinant of intracellular free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and pulmonary vascular tone. Sildenafil, a type V phosphodiesterase inhibitor that increases cellular cGMP, is recently identified as a promising agent for treatment of pulmonary hypertension. We previously demonstrated that chronic hypoxia elevated basal [Ca2+]i in PASMCs due in large part to enhanced store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE); moreover, ex vivo exposure to prolonged hypoxia (4% O2 for 60 h) upregulated TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression in PASMCs. We examined the effect of sildenafil on basal [Ca2+]i, SOCE, and the expression of TRPC in PASMCs under prolonged hypoxia exposure. We also examined the effect of sildenafil on TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle (PA) from rats that developed chronically hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CHPH). Compared with vehicle control, treatment with sildenafil (300 nM) inhibited prolonged hypoxia induced increases of 1) basal [Ca2+]i, 2) SOCE, and 3) mRNA and protein expression of TRPC in PASMCs. Moreover, sildenafil (50 mg · kg–1 · day–1) inhibited mRNA and protein expression of TRPC1 and TRPC6 in PA from chronically hypoxic (10% O2 for 21 days) rats, which was associated with decreased right ventricular pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy. Furthermore, we found, in PASMCs exposed to prolonged hypoxia, that knockdown of TRPC1 or TRPC6 by their specific small interference RNA attenuated the hypoxic increases of SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i, suggesting a cause and effect link between increases of TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression and the hypoxic increases of SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i. These results suggest that sildenafil may alter basal [Ca2+]i in PASMCs by decreasing SOCE through downregulation of TRPC1 and TRPC6 expression, thereby contributing to decreased vascular tone of pulmonary arteries during the development of CHPH.

  W Lu , P Ran , D Zhang , N Lai , N Zhong and J. Wang
 

Recent advances have identified an important role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in pulmonary vascular remodeling, yet the underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. We have previously found that Ca2+ influx through store-operated calcium channels (SOCC), which are mainly thought to be composed of canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) proteins, likely contribute to the pathogenic development of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we investigated the effect of BMP4 on expression of TRPC and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting revealed that treatment with BMP4 (50 ng/ml, 60 h) increased TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC6 mRNA and protein expression in growth-arrested rat distal PASMCs. Moreover, in comparison to vehicle control, cells treated with BMP4 also exhibited enhanced SOCE, and elevated basal intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) as determined by fluorescent microscopy using the Ca2+ indicator Fura-2 AM. Perfusing cells with Ca2+-free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution (KRBS) or KRBS containing SOCC antagonists SKF-96365 or NiCl2 attenuated the increases in basal [Ca2+]i caused by BMP4. Specific knockdown of BMP4 by small interference RNA significantly decreased the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC1, TRPC4, and TRPC6 and reduced SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i in serum-stimulated PASMCs. We conclude that BMP4 regulates calcium signaling in PASMCs likely via upregulation of TRPC expression, leading to enhanced SOCE and basal [Ca2+]i in PASMCs, and by this mechanism contributes to pulmonary vascular remodeling during pulmonary arterial hypertension.

 
 
 
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